WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions and Answers, Use the map of TANKO DISTRICT to answer questions 1-10

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography

1. The scale of the map is approximately
A 1:10 000 B. 1:25 000 C. 1:50 000 D. 1:200 000 E. 1:1000 000

2. What is the appropriate straight line distance between Tiki and Tanko?
A. 20.0km B. 27.0km C. 36.0km D. 46.0km E. 16. 0km

3. The approximate bearing of Joma from Tanko is
A. 45° B. 50° C. 65° D. 295° E. 315°

4. Which of the following settlements is not visible from Tanko?
A. Kevu B. Magu C. Bore D. Wazo E. Joma

5. Which of the following is likely to be the most important railway town?
A. Magu B. Tanko C. Wazo D. Gomi E. Kiti

6. Which of the following settlements is located on a cal?
A. Kofi B. Gomi C. Joma D. Magu E. Basa

7. The rivers of Tanko district
A. flow into the ocean B. are characterized by meanders C. have their sources in the central highlands D. have radial drainage patterns E. are seasonal rivers

8. The main occupation of the inhabitants of Joma area is likey to be
A. fishing B. lumbering C. mining D. animal-rearing E. pottery-making

9. There are few settlements north and south of Kofi because
A. it is mainly on grassland B. there are no railways C. nobody wants to live there D. it is highland area with steep slopes E. there are no roads

10. The cultivation of sugarcane is most likely to take place
A. north ofWazo B. in the area around Kevu C. south­east of Wazo D. around Lori and environs E. in the area around Kagora


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

11. Which of the following statements is not true of the Solar system?
A. The rays of the sun give energy to the system B. All the planets rotate around the sun C. All the planets have their orbits round the sun D. The planets revolve around the sun E. The sun is at the centre of the system

12. In the southern hemisphere, the autumnal equinox occurs on
A. 21st March B. 21st June C. 23rd September D. 22nd December E. 4th January

13. The layer of earth found immediately beneath the crust is called
A. hydrosphere B. lithosphere C. mesosphere D. barysphere E. core

14. “They are formed from the accumulation of materials derived from other rocks which have been cemented together”. This is a description of
A. metamorphic rocks B. plutonic rocks C. organically formed sedimentary rocks D. volcanic rocks E. mechanically formed sedimentary rocks

15. Which of the following is a volcanic plateau?
A. Kukuruku B. Terra Rosa C. Deccan D. Graben E. Atlas

16. The overriding portion of the thrust fold is termed
A. a simple fold B. an overfold C. a syncline D. a nappe E. an anticline

17. Depositional plains refer to all the following except
A. alluvial plains B. structural plains C. deltaic plains D. flood plains E. drift plains

18. When the roof of a coastal cave collapses, it forms
A. a doline B. an estuary C. a gorge D. a lagoon E. agea.

19. During wave actions, the rush of water onshore is called
A. longshore drift B. swash C. underlow D. backwash E. tidal current

20. The Red Sea has a higher degree of salinity than the Mediterranean Sea because the former
A. is smaller in size than the latter B. is located in a rift valley while the letter is located in a geosyncline C. receives a smaller amount of fresh water than the latter D. is linked with the Indian Ocean while the latter is linked with the Atlantic E. is nearer a hot desert than the latter


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

21. Most warm ocean currents flow
A. on the eastern side of continents B. towards the equator C. in the Pacific Ocean D. on the western side of continents E. towards the high latitudes

22. The cooling of a warm moist air current as it passes over a cold sea or land surface often causes
A. a counter current B. rainfall C. a cyclone D. fogs E. a high tide

23. Which of the following combinations of factors influences atmospheric pressure? I. Latitude Il. Soil moisture Ill. Altitude IV. Temperature
A. I, II and Ill only B . I, II and IV only C. I, Ill and IV only D. I and II only E. II, Ill and IV only

24. Which of the following local winds are hot? I. Sirocco II. Leveene Ill. Mistral IV. Bora
A. I and II only B. I, and III only C. II and Ill only D. II and IV only E. Ill and IV only

25. When you observe the wind vane, the head of the arrow shows the
A. speed of the wind B. direction to which the wind is blowing C. duration of the wind D. weight of the wind E. direction from which the wind is blowing.

Use the fable below to answer questions 26 and 27

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography


26. The annual range of temperature is
A. 3°C B. 4°C C. 5°C D. 6°C E. 7°C

27. The above climatic data refers to the
A. warm temperate climate B. equatorial climate C. savannah climate D. cool temperate climate E. desert climate

28. Which of the following least explains the advantages of Koppen’s classification of climate over the Greek classification?
A. There are five major divisions in Koppen’s classification B. The Greek classification is rather too generalised
C. Koppen’s classification is based on both rainfall and temperature whereas the Greek classification is based on temperature only D. The values of rainfall and temperature used by Koppens are based on the requirement of certain plants E. The Koppen’s classification was developed more recently than the Greek classification.

29. A soil profile refers to the
A. gradient of the soil B. slope of the soil C. vertical section of the soil on of the soil E. horizontal ::e soil exaggeration

30 The coal temperate woodland is characterized by
A. sparse undergrowth and broad-leaved deciduous trees B. very sparse vegetation of xerophytic plants C. wiry grass and shrub D. rolling grassland that are treeless E. trees with leaves appearing brown throughout the year


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

31 Interdependence within the ecosystem can best be interpreted to mean that components of the ecosystem
A. prey on one another B. harm one another C. regulate one another D. interact with one another
E. create one another

32 Which of the following is not a measure of environmental control?
A. Preservation B. Stabilisation C. Degradation D. Afforestation E. Conservation

33 The concept of environmental balance can be taken to mean that an alteration in one of the components of the ecosystem may likely result in the
A. minimisation of the processes within the system B. reversal of the processes within the system C. acceleration of the processes within the system D. stabilization of the processes within the system E. stopping of the processes within the system

34 The rapid exhaustion of non-renewable natural resources may least be aided by one of the following. Which is it?
A. Increased urbanisation B. Reckless exploitation C. Inadequate technology D. Natural disaster E. Excessive demand

35 Through which of the following sea routes is crude oil from Nigeria transported to Europe?
A. North-Atlantic B. Trans-Pacific C. Far-East D. South-Atlantic E. T rans-Indian

36 Which of the following continents has the largest population?
A. Africa B. Asia C. Europe D. North America E. South America

37 Which of the following is most hindered by the line squalls, harmattan haze and rainy season clouds?
A. River transport B. Road transport C. Rail transport D. Air transport E. Ocean transport

38 All the following are major sources of air pollution except
A. gas flaring B. domestic cooking C. aviation combustion D. Industrial furnaces E. vehicle Combustion

39 Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between rural and urban centres?
A. Cities are not important as rural areas B. Rural areas are more productive than cities C. Cities can exist without the rural areas D. Cities and rural areas depend on each other E. Rural areas exist only to serve the cities

40. The only factor that least explains the pattern of population distribution in Nigeria is the
A. Arab slave raiding B. stability of government of the old kingdoms C. physical factor of rainfall D. movement of people from one place to another E. occurrence of earthquakes in certain areas.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

41 Which of the following statements is correct about the Sokoto plains?
A. It is not an area of inland drainage B. It lies in the middle of the country and borders the Rivers Benue and Niger C. It is a pear-shaped upland area D. It consists of the basement complex rocks E. It is dissected by rift valleys and plateaus.

42. Which of the following is the characteristic pattern of rural settlements in the eastern scarplands of Nigeria?
A. Satellite B. Nucleated C. Elongated D. Dispersed E. Linear

43 The following rivers take their sources from the highlands of Western Nigeria except
A. Shasha B. Wase C. Owena D. Osse E. Siluko

44. The region has volcanic plugs, inselbergs and a lake. Which of the following geographical regions. being described?
A. Eastern scarplands B. Western uplands C. North-central plateau D. Eastern highlands E. North-eastern highlands

45. All the following are important timber producing countries in Africa except
A. Nigeria B. Ghana C. Cote D’lvoire D. Mauritania E. Zaire

46. The major problem facing the rearing of livestock in East Africa is the
A. competition for land with arable cultivators B. torrential rainfall which destroys livestock feeds C. poorly developed rail transportation network D. inferior breed of cattle which produce only meat E. inadequate veterinary services.

47. All the following are problems facing the cultivation of fruits in the Mediterranean reigon of Africa except
A. long gestation period B. frost action C. inadequate water D. re-stocking E. inadequate processing methods

48. All of the following can be made from the by-products of crude oil except
A. plastic B. synthetic rubber C. glass D. detergents E. insecticides

49. Which of the following countries in Africa has the greatest hydra-electric potential?
A. Nigeria B. Zaire C. Egypt D. Cameroun E. Zimbabwe

50. Which of the following is not among the objectives of ECOWAS?
A. Promotion of unified budgetary system B. Promotion of cultural, social and political ties C. Promotion of economic cooperation D. Elimination of trade restrictions E. Promotion of a unified currency system.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography ANSWERS

1.D 2.B 3.C 4.E 5.E 6.C 7.C 8.D 9.D 10.C 11.B 12.C 13.C 14.E 15.C 16.D 17.B 18.E 19.B 20.C 21.E 22.D 23.C 24.A 25.B 26.D 27.C 28.A 29.C 30.A 31.D 32.C 33.B 34.C 35.D 36.B 37.A 38.B 39.D 40.E 41.A 42.D 43.B 44.C 45.D 46.A 47.E 48.C 49.C 50.A



Study the map extract Map A, on the scale 1:50,000 showing an area in Nigeria, North is at the top of the sheet

.WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography

1. (a) On the map: (i) shade clearly one area below 1,250 feet; (ii) indicate clearly with an arrow, the direction of flaw of the River Elemi;(iii) write boldly over an example of each of the following: a pass (along Ado-Ekiti-Awo Ekiti road); a quarry: a plain (b) In your answer book (i) describe with examples, the effects of relief on the atterri of settlements and communication lines in the mapped area; (i) state three functions which make Ado-EKIt more important than Igede-Ekiti.


Answer two questions only from the section

2. (a) Distinguish between (i) Latitude and Longitude (ii) Standard Time and Greenwich Mean Time (b) If the Greenwich Mean Time is 1 0:00am, 5th July when Local Time in a place X is 4:48am, 4th July. find the longitude of place X.

3. (a) Define the term sedimentary rock and describe any two processes of its formation (b) Discuss any three ways in which sedimentary rocks are important to man

4. (a) Identify and explain any four factors which determine the direction of flow of ocean current (b) Using specific examples, discuss the effects of ocean currents on the climate of the adjacent coastal area.

Use the rainfall and temperature data below to answer the questions that follow
Months………………J    F    M    A    M    J        J     A     S      O     N    D
Temperature °C    22  25  29   32   31   28     27   26 .  27    27   26   27
Rainfall (mm)        0    3     3    13    64  122  208  307 140   13    0     0

5 (a) Draw a combined rainfall and temperature graph for the station (b) Identify the climatic type represented by the data. (C) Give four reasons for your answer in (b) above

6 (a) Draw a labelled diagram of a simple soil profile (b) Describe the characteristics of any two of the zones in the soil profile drawn in (b) above. Give reasons for each characteristic

7 (a) Differentiate between permanent drought and seasonal drought, giving an example of each (b) Highlight any two main causes and two effects of drought (c) Suggest any two methods of minimizing toe effects of drought.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography Paper 2 ANSWERS

(2) (i) Latitude is the angular distance of a point on the Earth’s surface, measured in degrees from the centre of the earth. Lines of Latitude run from West to East and they can be used to calculate distance between one place to another. It extends between 90°N and 90°S. Longitudes are imaginary lines running from the North to the South at right angle to the parallel. The longitude that passes through the centre of the earth is called the prime or Greenwich Meridian.

Longitude can be used to calculate local time and it extends between 180°W and 180°E. (ii) Standard Time is the time generally adopted by a particular country which is usually taken from the central meridian of that country. The need is to eliminate difference in local time between one town and another; otherwise it will result in changing time from one town to another. E.g Nigeria has accepted the meridian of 15°E for her standard time which is 1 hour ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time: Greenwich Mean Time is the time along the prime or Greenwich Meridian which is longitude 0°. It is from the GMT that all countries take their time E.g London and Accra are on longitude 00 and all other countries take their time from the GMT from London. If the GMT in London is 3.00 pm,
Nigerian time will be 4.00 pm.

2(b) To calculate the longitude of X

X°            0°

W   Subtract      E
4.48am 10.00am
4th July 5th of July

(ii) Find the time difference
The time difference from 10.00am 5th July to
4.48am 4th July = 29 hours 12 mins.
29 hours 12 mins -24 hours (one day) = 5hrs 12 minutes

(iii) Convert time difference (5 hrs 12 minutes) to longitude
15° = 1 hour
5hrs=15°x5 =75°
4 minutes = 1° 12 mins.n-3 =3°
Total degree = 75° + 30 = 78°
(iv) Since X° is west of 0°, the longitude therefore is 78°W


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

(3:) Sedimentary rock is the type of rock formed from the accumulation of layers of deposits of sediments in water or on land. These sediments later join or cement together in layers to form sedimentary rock. Two processes of sedimentary rock formation are: Mechanical Process: Involves the formation of sedimentary rock from sediments accumulated from other rocks such as igneous and metamorphic rocks.These rocks rocks settled In layers to form sedimentary rock E.g,formation of sandstone, shale’, conglomerate.
Chemical Process: Pre-existing igneous and metamorphic rocks are precipitated chemically from solution of one kind or the other: Rock salt are derived from strata which once formed the beds of seas or lakes. Examples of rocks formed by chemical process include sodium chloride, gypsum,etc.
(b) Three ways in which sedimentary rocks are important to man are:’ (i),Some sedimentary rocks are.sources. of some useful minerals such as. coal and petroleum which serve as fuel energy to man. (ii) Some sedimentary rocks are used for road construction and for building houses. (iii) Rocksalt, e.g sodium chloride (table salt) is a source.of body mineral needed for maintaining osmotic’pressure in the blood.

4. Four factors which determine the direction of flow of ocean current are
(i) Planetary winds (ii) Temperature (iii) Salinity (iv). The Earth’s rotation (v) planetary Winds: Between the equator and the tropics, the Trade Winds move equatorial water pole-wards and westwards and warm the eastern coasts of continents, e.g the North- East Trade winds
,3 accumulation of layers of deposits of sediments in move the North. Equatorial current, Florida current and Gulf stream Drift, to warm the Southern and Eastern coasts of U.S.A. ..
(II) Temperature: Because of the difference in temperature of ocean waters at the equator and at the poles the warm water. is lighter and rises and the cold water is denser and sinks hence warm equatorial moves slowly along the surface pole-ward and the cold water moves equator-wards.kill) Salinity: Water of high salinity are denser than water of low salinity hence water of low salinity flows on the surface of water of high salinity (iv) Rotation of the earth: The earth rotates from west to east and causes the ocean water to deflect to the right thereby making ocean water to deflect in a clockwise direction in the Northern hemisphere and anticlockwise in the Southern hemisphere.

(b) Effects of ocean current on the climate of the adjacent coastal areas, (i) Warm current raise the temperatures dfa ctt1ids.(ii) Warm current brings regular and heavy rainfall to the coast lands
Warm current helps to keep ports in polar region free from ice
Cold current causes aridity and desert e.g Benguela current of west coast of South Africa causes Namibia desert
The meeting of two different current (i.e cold and warm currents) is a blessing as it results in the growth of planktons where fishing can be done.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography


The type of climate represented by the data is the Tropical Continental (Sudan type) climate
(c) Four reasons for the answer in (b) are (i) The annual range for the temperature is 10°C (ii) Rainy season begins in May and lasts till September and the rest of the year is cool and dry (iii) It has one single maximum of rainfall which is August (iv) The annual mean temperature is 21°C.

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography


A – Horizon:
This horizon is also called.the top soil. It contains remains of plants and animals which are undergoing
decomposition to form humus. It is also known as the eluvial horizon or zone of eluviation which is Impoverished by
the washing of clay and’fine oil’·particles down to the soil profit. It is the horizon with maximum biological activities
of plants and soil micro-organisms.
B – Horizon: This horizon is also called the sub soil. It is the zone of enrichment (illuvial horizon or zone of illuviation). It is the accumulation of soil minerals, in which humus and other organic matter washed down from the A -horizon are converted into inorganic compound.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

7. (a) Permanent drought is the complete absence of precipitation in an area. There is virtually no water in the soil. This is common in deserts. Seasonal drought is the type in which an area only experiences drought at a particular season and plenty of rainfall or precipitation at the other season. E.g Some areas could have rainfall during the rainy season while they will experience dryness during the dry season. This situation results in seasonal drought.

(b)(i) Two causes of drought are (ii) Absence of precipitation or rainfall (ii) Shifting of climatic zones which results in southwards creeping 6f the Sahara Desert. (ii) Two effects of drought are (i) Drought gives rise to large scale disruption of socio-economic life due to crop failure, lack of water and livestock pasture (ii) It can lead to displacement of settlement and migration of people from drought—affected areas to other areas.
(C) Two methods of minimizing the effects of drought are: (i) The application of large scale irrigation to water the area so as to stimulate the growth of vegetation (ii) Afforestation: the planting of trees minimizes the level of drought as this could even result in the formation of rain.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – GEOGRAPHY 3

Answer one question only from this section
1. (a) Explain how each of the following has affected world population: (i) Improved medical care,
(ii) Advanced technology and industry (b) Highlight four factors which account for the high density population in Java

2. (a) Name any two types of urban settlements (b) Outline the characteristic features of each type (C) Describe any four problems facing urban centres.

3. (a) Describe three advantages and three limitations of water transportation (b) Explain how the limitations identified in (a) above can be overcome

4. Give reasons for the (a) low volume of trade between Nigeria and other countries of Africa (b) high volume of trade between Nigeria and Japan

5. (a) Name three broad classes into which manufacturing industries can be grouped and one important area in the world where an example of each is located (b) Describe three main characteristics of each class of industry named in (a) above.

Answer two questions only from this section

6. (a) On an outline map of Nigeria, locate and name (i) the four climatic belts (ii) one important town in each belt
(b) Describe the seasonal pattern of rainfall in either southern or northern Nigeria (C) Explain the effects of the seasonal pattern of rainfall on farming activities in the area chosen in (b) above.

7. Write a brief account of fishing in Nigeria under the following headings: (a) areas (b) methods
(C) types of fish (d) importance

8. (a) On a sketch map of Nigeria, show and name one industrial zone in each of the following areas: (I) north of the Rivers Niger and Benue (ii) east of the River Niger (iii) west of the River Niger (b) Name one cottage industry and one
manufacturing industry in any one of the zones shown on your map (c) Account for the location of each of the industries named in (b) above.

9. (a) (i) On an outline map of Nigeria, show the area that is mostly affected by desert encroachment (U) Locate and name two important towns within the area (b) Describe the major causes of desertification (c) Explain two possible ways of combating this hazard.

10. (a) Explain any four factors which limit the rate of development in the southern coastlands of Nigeria
(b) In what four ways can the development of the region be enhanced?


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

Answer one question only from this section
11. (a) On a sketch map of Africa, mark and name (i) one forest belt (ii) one tropical grassland belt (iii) one major town in each belt (b) Highlight the characteristics of any one of the vegetation belts shown on your map (c) Describe the importance of the vegetation belt chosen in (b) above to man
12. (a) On an outline map of Africa, mark and name (i) one area important for gold in Ghana, (ii) one area important for petroleum in Libya (iii) one area important for copper in Zaire (iv) one important town in each area (b) Using specific examples, show how mining has contributed to economic development in West Africa (c) In what four ways has mining posed a problem to the environment in West Africa?

13. (a) On an outline map of Africa, show and name (i) latitude 20°N (ii) the prevailing winds in July (iii) one cold ocean current in the north: (iv) one warm ocean current in the south (b) Describe the effects of prevailing winds and ocean currents on the climate of any one part of Africa.

14. Give an account of irrigation agriculture in the Nile Basin under the following headings (a) need for irrigation (b) areas
(c) methods (d) crops growth (e) importance

15. Write explanatory notes on lumbering in Zaire under the following headings (a) areas (b) factors (c) importance
(d) problems (e) possible solutions



1. (a)(i) How improved medical care affected world population:- It has helped to increase population through
(i) knowledge of the causes of infectious diseases and how to prevent them (ii) Provision of improved health services through availability of well-trained medical personnel (iii) Knowledge of better sanitation (iv) Reduced infant mortality rate as a result of better care.
(a)(ii) How advanced technology and industry affected world population. It has led to increased population through: (i) Modernisation of Agriculture, leading to plentiful and varied food supply, (ii) The use of fertilizers from industries ensures the availability of food hence increase in population. (iii) Provision of storage and processing
facilities ensure the availability of food (either raw or processed form) all year round (iv) Knowledge of prevention and
control of pests and diseases which helps to increase food production (v) Provision of consumable goods from industries which ensure high standard of living.
(b) Four factors which account for the high density of population in Java are: (i) Presence of rich volcanic soil (i.e the soil is very fertile) (ii) Abundance of rainfall which ensures smooth agricultural activities (iii) Intensive agricultural activities attract people to the area (they grow 2-3 crops in a year) (iv) Favourable climate conducive for intensive farming


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

2. (a) Two types of urban settlements are: (i) Conurbation and (ii) Megalopolis
Characteristics of conurbation: (i) It is made up of two or more towns (ii) The towns are joined together (iii) The towns still retain their identities. Characteristics of megalopolis: (i) It is made up of many cities (iii) The cities are joined together (iii) It represents the largest urban settlement
Four problems facing urban centres are (i) Inadequate transport facilities as a result of increasing number of people trooping into urban centres (ii) Over-use and deterioration of available social amenities such as water, electricity, school, etc (iii) Increase in the rate of crime as a result of lack of employment of able-bodied persons (iv) The problem of undue increase in human and vehicular traffic in urban areas.

3. (a) Three advantages of water transportation are: (i) Water transportation is the cheapest means of moving
people and goods from one place to another: (ii) Large quantities of goods can be carried at a time over a long distance (ii) Oceans are free for use by all nations as there are no track to maintain except when approaching ports Three limitations of water transportation are: (i) It is very slow (ii) Prevalence of rapids and waterfalls
make inland water transportation very difficult (iii) Fluctuations in the volume of water in inland waterways makes navigation a big problem.
(b) Three ways in which the limitations identified in 3(a) can be overcome include (i) Building of modern ships with greater speed (ii) Efforts should be made to eliminate the cataracts and rapids along inland navigation to ensure smooth movement of ships (iii) Dredging of some important inland navigation water-ways should be done in order to ensure deep and large volume of water in these rivers.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

4. (a) Reasons for low volume of trade between Nigeria and other countries of Africa. See answer in SSCE 1990 No 5(b) (b) Reasons for high volume of trade between Nigeria and Japan include (i) Goods produced by both countries are
different hence the increase in the volume of trade (ii) Differences in climatic conditions create the conditions necessary for the production of different agricultural goods (iii) Differences in the level of technology (iv) Increase in foreign exchange earnings (v) Increase in the prices of goods offered for sale.

5. (a) Three broad classes of manufacturing industries are (i) Cottage or craft industries e.g West Africa
(ii) Light industries e.g India (iii) Heavy industries e.g USA.
(b)(i) Three main characteristics of cottage or craft industry (i) It involves very few people working at home (ii) It may not require power-driven machines (iii) Special skills are required. (iii) Three characteristics of light industries (i) They produce relatively small light weigth goods (ii) Products are mainly final or consumer goods (iii) They usually employ a lot of female workers (iii) Three characteristics of heavy industries (i) They produce heavy and bulky goods (ii) Products are neither final nor consumer goods but are used in construction or manufacturing industries (iii) they usually employ male workers due to the nature of work involved.

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography
Four Climatic belts of Nigeria

6(b) Seasonal pattern of rainfall in Southern Nigeria
(i) The long wet season – Rainfall starts in March till July when plants look green due to heavy rains and high humidity (ii) The short dry season – Called the August break where there is little or no rainfall in the month of August (iii) The short wet season- Starts from August ending October. The rainfall is not heavy as the first season (iv) The long dry, or harmattan season -Starts around November till mid-March with cool and misty morning, hazy afternoon and a cold and dry evening. There is virtually no rainfall during this time.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

(6C) The effects of seasonal pattern of rainfall on farming activities include
(i) it enables farmers to grow crops in a year (ii) it enables farmers to grow tree crops because of heavy rainfall (iii) Harvesting of crops is usually done especially during the dry season (iv) Heavy rainfall however, discourages livestock farming because it does not favour grass growth.

7. (a) Areas of fishing in Nigeria include the following:
(i) Inland fishing areas like rivers, Lake Chad and streams (ii) Fishing in creeks and lagoons (iii) Ocean or off-shore fishing (b) Methods of fishing include:(i) The use of traps (ii) The use of hooks and lines (ii) The use of nets (iv) The use of trawlers in ocean fishing (c) Types of fish include: Tilapia, Catfish, Claris, Shark, Mackerel, etc. (d) Importance of fishing in Nigeria: (i) Provision of food, it is a source of protein (ii) It provides employment to many people (iii) Fish exported can provide foreign exchange (iv) Fish by products are used as fish meal in livestock farming (v) Establishment of fish processing industries.

8(a) See answer in Geo 2 SSCE August 1991, Question 9(a)
(b) One cottage industry and one manufacturing industry in Western Industrial Zone are Textile and Cement industries respectively (c) Reasons for the Location of Textile Industries: (i) Presence of cotton in the area (ii) High level of skills available in the area (iii) Availability of favourable market (iv) It is part of the culture of the people. Reasons for location of cement industries: (I) Presence of limestone (raw material) (ii) Availability of power (iii) Nearness to market (iv) Availability of labour (v) Easy transport facilities within the zone.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography

(b) Major causes of desertification include:
(i) Shifting of climatic zones e.g natural shifting or encroachment of the Sahara Desert towards the North estimated to be 50 km per year (ii) Climatic variations – very low rainfall (iii) Human activities such as deforestation and overgrazing (c) Two possible ways of combating desert encroachment include: (i) Large scale irrigation system – This will enable water to be available in the soil and consequently promote the growth of vegetation in the area. (ii) Afforestation – This involves the planting of trees which act as barriers to the speed of winds carrying sand from the desert

10. (a) Four factors which limit the rate of development in the Southern Coastlands of Nigeria are:
(i) Swampy terrain of the area. The coastland is swampy due to high rainfall and nearness to the coast hence poor development of the area (ii) Problem of erosion which has resulted in severe land loss in the area. This also makes fishing difficult. (iii) The invasion of canals, creeks and lagoons by water hyacinth seriously limits the rate of development of the area as it makes transportation and fishing very difficult. (iv) Exploration and exploitation of crude oil resulting in oil spillage, this also affects the rate of development of the area. (b) Four ways in which the development of the region can be enhanced include: (i) The establishment of River Basin Development Authorities to bring some infrastructural facilities to the region (ii) The establishment of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research is useful to collect data to ensure large fishing concerns to the area in order to increase its infrastructural development and economic prospect. (iii) Construction of modern highways or flyovers to link the port towns and cities to reduce inaccessi­bility (iv) Petroleum prospecting companies should allocate a reasonable percentage of their earnings to the development of the area.

11 a.
WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography

(b) Characteristics of the forest belt are: (i) Presence of tall trees with canopies (ii) The leaves are evergreen (iii) Presence of different layers of trees (iv) Presence of undergrowth such as chambers, twiners, and epiphytes. (C) Importance of the Forest Belt to man (i) It is the source of valuable timber, e.g Iroko, Obeche, Mahogany, etc. (u) Plantation agriculture especially food crops are carried out in the belt (iii) Hunting of wild animals is also common(iv) Lumbering activities is major occupation of the people.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

12 a.

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Geography

(b) The contribution of mining to the economic development of West Africa
(i). Mining provides employment to many people (ii)Minerals from mining activities generate foreign exchange to countries like Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, etc (iii) It has led to the development of new towns such as Jos, Enugu in Nigeria (iv) Minerals are provided for industries as raw materials (v) Products of mining are useful to enhance high standard of living e.g petrol, gas, kerosene from petroleum (c) Problems of mining to the environment include: (i) Air pollution through the mining of minerals like Gold, Copper, etc, (ii) Water pollution through oil spillage (iii) Underground mining can result in earthquakes. (iv) Destruction of the natural ecosystem of the area.

13 a.

(b) The effects of prevailing winds and ocean currents on the climate of West Africa. (i) The South West trade winds bring rainfall to the coast of West Africa (ii) The warm Guinea current also brings rainfall to the coast of West Africa. (iii) The canaries current brings dryness or desert resulting in the formation of desert in the North of West of Africa (iv) Prevailing N.E trade wind brings Harmattan


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Geography

14. (a) The need for irrigation agriculture in the Nile Basin include
(i) To supply water to the soil (ii) To fight drought (iii) To improve the environment where plants grow
(b)Areas of irrigation agriculture include: (i) Areas around the Nile Valley especially in Egypt and Sudan which have a desert type of climate.
(c) Methods of irrigation include; (i) Basin or flooding method -when water overflows the Nile banks and water the areas around the place (ii) Perennial method – Involves the damming of the river to create artificial reservoir where water can be channeled to farms (iii) The Shaduf method -Involves the collection of water from river channels using buckets or water bags and pouring it on the farms. (d) Crops grown include rice, cotton, maize, sugarcane, vegetables, millet, groundnut, etc. (e) Importance of irrigation agriculture (i) It ensures the cultivation of 2-3 crops in a year (ii) No need to rely on rainfall (iii) Water is made available to crops all the year round (iv) It ensures bumper harvest from crops.

15. (a)Areas of lumbering in Zaire include the forest regions of Huri and Equateur provinces (b) Factors of lumbering include: (i) The dense equatorial forest is a source of valuable timber (ii) River Zaire and its tributaries serve as means of transporting the logs to the sawmills or ports for export (iii) Ready market for the sawn timber both locally and externally (iv) There is high demand for timber as fuel (c) Importance of lumbering include: (i) Okoume (softwood) is used for making plywood while Limba and Mahogany are used for construction work and furniture making (ii) It provides employment to many people (iii) Timber provides foreign exchange for the country (iv) Timber provides raw materials for plywood industries (v) Hardwoods are used for boat building because of their durability (d) Problems of Lumbering in Zaire include: (i) High cost of surveying economic trees because there are many species around (ii) Felling of trees is difficult and expensive because the trees are close together
(iii) Many of the trees have buttresses which make felling difficult (iv) Presence of rapids and waterfalls makes transportation of logs difficult (v) High rate of deforestation without corresponding afforestation. (e) Possible solutions to the above problems (i) Only valuable trees should be grown (ii) Taungya system of farming whereby farmers grow crops and later plant economic trees should be adopted (iii) Two economic seedlings should be grown where one has been cut (iv) Roads should be constructed in some areas as to ensure easy transportation of logs.



WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

Answer all the questions

1. Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. Ends’ here refers to
A. resources B. wants C. choice D. output E. factors.

2. A review of occupational distribution of population from time to time helps us to know the
A. rate at which the population grows B. number of people that make up the labour force C. efficiency of the working population D. industries which are becoming less important E. number of people that are not employed.

3. The price of a commodity is determined by the
A. supplier B. consumer C.. quantity of goods demanded D. quantity of goods supplied E. interaction of demand and supply.

4. In which of the following economic systems is the consumer referred to as The King’?
A. Planned economy B. Mixed economy C. Traditional economy D. Free Market economy E. Socialist economy.

5. Into which of these organizations would you classify the International Monetary Fund (IMF)?
A. Political organization B. Trade organization C. Financial organization D. Social organization E. Commercial organization.

6. A normal demand curve
A. is concave to the point of origin B. is convex to the point of origin C. is parallel to X axis. D. is parallel to Y axis. E. slopes upwards from left to right.

7. A demand schedule is
A. a table containing the price of goods B. a table showing the relationship between price and quantity demanded of a commodity C. a table showing the consumer demand in order of importance D. the quantity of goods the consumer is prepared to buy. E. the market demand.

8. P = Population, GNP = Gross National Product, GDP = Gross Domestic Product, NI = National Income
From the above, the formula for calculating Real Per Capita Income is

9. Age Distribution Table
0 – 15 = 10,000
16 – 35 = 3,000
36 – 60 = 5,000
61+ = 2,000
The above table shows the age distribution of a town in Nigeria. What is the dependency ratio of the town?
A. 10 : 3 B. 2 : I C. 3 : 2 D.4:3 E.5:2

10. The equilibrium position of a firm is attained
A. when MC = AR B. when MC = P C. when MC =MR. D. when AC=AR E. when AR=MR


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

11. Which of the following is not an advantage of price control?
A Control of inflation B. Distortion of price mechanism C. Prevention of exploitation D. Control of producer’s profit E. Helping low income earners.

12. Which of these factors does not cause a change in demand?
A income B. Taste and fashion C. Population D. Price of other commodities E. Price of the commodity concerned.

13. Price control can be defined as the fixing by government of maximum or minimum prices of
A. luxury goods B. inferior goods C. imported capital goods D. certain selected goods E. goods consumed by low income earners.

14. When the price of commodity A increases, the demand for commodity B decreases, then A and B are
A. close substitutes B. complementary goods C. supplementary goods D. giffen goods E. luxurious goods.

15. When the demand for a commodity is inelastic, total revenue will fall if
A. price is increased B. price is reduced C. price remains constant D. price is not given E. the commodity is a luxury.

16. In any economic system, which of the following is not an economic problem?
A. What goods and services to produce B. For whom to produce goods or services C. What techniques of production to be adopted D. Equal distribution of the goods and services E. How to ensure that the economy grow over time.

17. The major currency used for granting credits to member countries of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the
A. US dollar B. Canadian dollar C. Pound Sterling D. Deutschemark E. Belgian franc.

18. The two largest producers of crude oil in Nigeria are
A. Borno and Ondo States B. Oyo and Bendel States C. Kwara and Benue States D. Rivers and Bendel States E. Niger and Rivers States.

19. If a producer sells 1 kg of rice for N2.00 and his marginal product is 100kg, what is the highest wage he can pay the marginal labourer?
A.₦20.00 B. ₦30.00 C. ₦50.00 D. ₦100.00 E. ₦200.00

20. Nigeria indigenization decree was promulgated in order to
A. allow indigenes to have full participation in the economic activities of the country B. drive away foreigners C. give equal chances to indigenes and foreigners in making economic decisions in the country D. give industrial training to indigenes E. indigenes expose the economic activities of the country.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

21. An economic system in which most capital goods are owned by individuals and private firms is known as
A. Mixed economy B. Planned economy C. Capitalist economy 0. Traditional economy E. Civilized economy.

22. Which of the following is not a feature of the Sole Proprietorship?
A. the Sole Proprietor provides the capital to start the business B. the Sole Proprietor is the boss of his business C. there is unlimited liability D. continuity is doubtful at the death of the proprietor. E. decision can be taken only by 10 people.

23. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is important to the developing nations because it
A. gives loans to members for legal proceedings B. offers grants and aids for defence C. enhances financial relationship among countries D. offers soft loans for educational and health services
F. offers grants and aids to finance private projects.

24. Which of these best explains the Malthusian theory of population?
A. increase in population causes hunger and death B. The population increases faster than food supply C. The population grows at arithmetic progression while food production grows at geometric progression D. People could be sent to ‘No man’s land’ when the population increases E. People should produce as many children as they could because passion cannot be controlled.

25. Which of the following is the most liquid asset to a commercial bank?
A. Money at call and short notice B. Treasury Bills C. Commercial Bills D. Stocks and Shares E. Cash.

26. Which of the following statements is true about terms of trade?
A. Terms of trade shows the difference between the true of exports and imports B. Terms of trade indicates the rate at which exports is exchanged for imports. C. It is ratio of the price index of exports to imports D. It is usually expressed as a percentage.E. A rise in the price of exports relative to imports is an improvement.

27. Which of these does not relate to the law of comparative advantage?
A. The law of comparative advantage was propounded by David Ricardo B. The law stresses the importance of relative efficiency C. In order to specialize, a country must have absolute advantage D. The law is based on opportunity cost principle E. The principle if followed, should increase total world output.

28 A condition which adversely affects expansion of production is
A. effective management B. limited size of the market C. availability of funds D. increased profit prospects E. increasing returns to scale.

29. International trade and domestic trade are similar in all aspects except that
A. transportation by land, water and air is involved B. goods are exchanged C. services are exchanged D. the same currency is used as medium of exchange E. specialization and increased consumption is encouraged.

30. The drawer of a cheque is the
A. person who is to he paid the sum of money as written on the cheque B. person who takes the cheque to the bank C. bank on which the cheque is drawn D. person who writes out the cheque E. bank official who certifies the payment.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

31 Which of the following is not an item of capital expenditure?
A. building of roads and bridges B. supply of electricity C. building of dams D. building of harbours E. payment of interest on loans.

32. Which of the following roles is being played by the Organization of Petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) with regards to Nigeria’s crude oil?
A. Exploiting B. Exploring C. Refining D. Marketing E. Exporting.

33. The coefficient of price elasticity of demand is zero when demand is
A. fairly elastic B. perfectly inelastic C. fairly inelastic D. unitary elastic E. perfectly elastic.

34. External economies occur when
A. industries are scattered all around B. a firm decides to expand C. industries are producing below capacity D. firms comprising an industry are concentrated in one area E. a firm is located near raw materials.

35. When the demand for a commodity is inelastic, who bears greater burden of the indirect tax?
A. The producer B. The government C. The retailer D. The consumer E. The wholesaler

36. Which of the following crops can be referred to as Nigeria’s current export crops
A. Rubber, Groundnuts, Beniseed, Cotton B. Shear butter, Sorghum, Onions C. Rubber, Cocoa, Coffee, Palm Kernel D. Palm Oil, Palm Kernel, Sugarcane E. Soya beans, Rice, Groundnut, Cashew nut.

37. The imposition of high income tax by government to cut down demand is known as
A. monetary policy B. budgetary policy C. fiscal policy D. internal policy E. development policy.

38. Which of these factors does not affect revenue allocation in Nigeria?
A. Needs of an area B. Size of the population of an area C. Number of industries and land area . Revenue derivable from an area E. Development needs of the country.

39. The term marginal propensity to consume can best be explained as the
A. desire to spend more income, consumption B. change in consumption as a percentage of the change in income C. average income regularly spend on consumption D. total expenditure on consumption E. inclination to spend only a little on consumption.

40. Subsistence farming means producing food
A. mainly for the need of our immediate and extended family B. crops for sale mainly C. crops mainly for export D. to feed the community around E. in order to satisfy the government directives.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics ANSWERS
1B 2B 3E 4D 5C 6B 7B 8D 9C 10C 11B 12E 13D 14A 15B 16D 17A 18D 19E 20A 21C 22E 23C 24B 25E 26C 27C 28B 29D 30D 31E 32D 33B 34D 35D 36C 37C 38C 39B 40A


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics 2

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

Answer one question only from this section
1 . Given the figures below:
Price of commodity A in January = ₦5.00 Price of commodity A in February = ₦7.00
Quantity of bought in January = 20kg Quantity of bought in February = 16kg
(a) Calculate: (i) Percentage change in quantity bought (%) (ii) Percentage change in price of A (%)
(iii) Coefficient of price elasticity of demand (e) (b) From your answer:
(i) Is the demand elastic or inelastic? (ii) How do you know this?

2.      From the table below, answer the following questions:
Output of beans (kg) Table Revenue (₦) Marginal Revenue (₦) Total
Cost (4)
Cost (14)
10 150 250
20 200 5 300 5
30 350 15 430 13
40 450 F 500 7
50 550 5 550 M
60 600 5 580 3
70 630  X  700 12


(a) Find the value of F, M and X (b) (i) What would be the profit-maximizing output of this firm? (ii) If this firn were operating under perfect competition, what would be the price of its product?


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

Answer three questions only from this section.
3. Explain the uses of national income figures.
4. (a) Briefly outline the views of Thomas Malthus about population. (b) How valid are such views about the Nigerian situation today?
5. (a) What is demand-pull inflation? (b) Why is price control not suitable in checking this type of inflation?
6. What has the government done to encourage industrialization in Nigeria?
7. Write short notes on (a) Liquidity Ratio (b) Fixed Deposits (c) Money Market
8. The bulk of West African foreign trade is directed away from Africa to Europe and America. What are the reasons for this?
9 . Discuss the important role played by agriculture in the economy of your country.
10(a) What are the objectives of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)? (b) What are the problems of the OPEC? (c) What remedies have been adopted to curtail them?


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics 2  – ANSWERS


Month ——–Price ——Quantity Demanded
January——–₦5——— 20kg

(a) (i) Percentage change in quantity bought (% – q) (20 -16)
= 4/20 x 100/1  =   20%

(ii) Percentage change in price (N7 – N5) 2/5 x 100/1 = 40%

(iii) Coefficient of price elasticity of demand

ED = Percentage change in quantity demanded / Percentage change in price
ED = 20/40  =1/2
ED = 0.5

(b)(i) Demand is inelastic (ii) 0.5 is less than one and therefore coefficient price elasticity of demand is inelastic.

2. Marginal Revenue (MR) =∧TR / ∧qty
(a) Value of F = (450 – 350 / (40 – 30)
– 100/10
= :N:10.00

Value of X     =  (630 – 600) / (70-60)   = 30/10 = 3

Value of M: Marginal Cost (MC)           = ∧TC/∧ qty
= (550 -500)/(50 -40) =50/10 = ₦5

(b) (I) Profit will be maximized at a point where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. That occurred when the output was 50 kg.
(ii) If that firm was operating under perfect competition, the price of its product would have been 45


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics



(i) To Determine Economic Situation: It measures the economic growth, whether the economy is growing or not. (i) For Sectorial Comparison: Through the data collected from each sector, the progress of all the economic sectors can be compared. (iii) Comparison Of Economic Growth Among Nations: A nation can through the comparison know whether it is growing or not in relation to other nations.iv)Economic Planning: A nation uses her national income statistics in embarking on both short and long term planning. (v) It Reveals Income distribution: This helps the government of the country to know the form of tax to be adopted. (vi) To Determine The Regional Contributions: This is got from the use of output method in calculation of the national income. (vii) For Estimating Per Capita Income: This can be estimated from the national income if the total population is known. (viii) To Measure The Standard Of Living: Through the data gathered on the income and expenditure of the people, the standard of living of the people will be revealed. (ix) Useful Guide To Investors: The data gathered on people’s expenditures, incomes and outputs will put investors in position to know whether it is worth investing their capital in the country or not. (x) For Future Forecast: From the data collected, it will be possible to forecast the future rate of economic growth and (xi) For United Nations Aid: Based on their national incomes, the UNO will be in a position to know the amount of aids and other assistance it can give to member nations, especially developing ones.

4(a) Thomas Malthus’ views about population are embodied in his first essay titled; “Essay on population 1798” (i) That human nature and impulses undergo appreciable changes over a time. (ii) He regarded an egalitarian society CA unnatural, saying that in a given society, everybody cannot be equal. (iii) That nothing could be done to wipe out poverty which is inherent in a given society. (iv) That poverty can never be related to neither good or bad government. (v) That change of any government cannot therefore stop poverty. (vi) That human tendency could be traced as the source of poverty (vii) That want would arise as human population grows above food production. (viii) That power of human population could be increased far greater an the power of earth to produce food. (ix) That if human beings are not checked in their natural form, human population will grow at a geometrical progression while food production increases at arithmetical progression. (x) In Malthus’ view, population will grow at the rate of l,2,4,8,16,32,64 ………….. while food production will grow at the rate of l,2,3,4,5,6,7…. ….(xi) That if population still remains unchecked, human beings will double themselves in every 25 years and will increase 64 times in the next 150 years and food will increase 7 times. (xii) That increase in food will increase of food will decrease population because, many people will die of hunger.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

(b) Thomas Malthus views are valid about Nigerian situation today as a result of the following  factors
(i) Increase in population of Nigeria as a result of negative attitude. (ii) Nigeria is today applying a of checks in order to control her over-growing population, thereby vindicating Malthus. (iii) In Nigeria, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening everyday. (iv) Poverty which is inherent in a giver society according to Malthus, has proved extremely difficult to be wiped out in Nigeria. (v) Poverty in Nigeria cannot be attributed to any government either military or civilian. (vi) Frequent change in government has not stopped poverty in Nigeria. (vii) Serious want has arisen in Nigeria as human population has grown above food production.(viii) Human population in Nigeria is presently growing at a geometrical progression while food production is growing at arithmetical progression.

5 (a) Demand – pull inflation occurs when the demand for goods and services is higher than their supply caused mainly by increase in workers’ salaries and wages.

(b) Price control is not suitable in checking demand – pull inflation as a result of the following reasons: (i) Goods are in short supply. (ii) Buyers will prefer buying at higher price rather than not going home with the goods. (iii) Price control system is prone to a lot of malpractices. (iv) The interaction of the forces of demand and supply will work against price control system. (v) The existence of black market will contribute a lot in making price control not suitable in checking demand-pull inflation.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

6. The government of Nigeria has done a lot to encourage industrialization in the country. Among them are:
I) ()reduction in company tax in order to attract both local and foreign industrialists.(ii) Reduction of import duties and issuance of more import licences for the importation of machinery and raw materials.iii) Provision of infrastructural facilities like good roads, air and seaports, electricity, etc.
iv) Provision of medical facilities that have assured would-be investors of good health condition.
v) Relaxing industrial laws such as the indigenization policy.vi) Increase of industrial loans that have enabled more businessmen to obtain loans and establish more industries.vii) Setting up of more industrial development banks that have made more funds available to potential industrialists and also helped to supervise the establishment of these industries.viii) Creation of industrial estates that have helped to remove the bottleneck in acquiring land.ix) Training of more man-power through establishment of more universities and colleges of technology. (x) Finally, government of Nigeria has encouraged industrialization through development of the rural areas from where the raw materials come from with the establishment of DFRRI.

7. LIQUIDITY RATIO: This is also known as cash reserve or cash ratio. Commercial banks are required by law to keep certain percentage of their total cash or liquid assets in the form of cash either in their vaults or with the central bank. In Nigeria for example, the liquidity ratio is 25% and the commercial banks can give out the remaining 75% out in form of loans thereby creating deposits or money. The central bank uses this cash ratio which it fixes to increase or decrease the volume of money in circulation in the country. If the central bank wants to increase the amount of money supplied to the public especially ir 11 period of deflation and thereby expanding credits, it will lower the cash ratio of the commercial bank On the other hand, if it (central bank) wants to decrease the amount of money supplied especially in period of inflation and thereby contract credit, it will raise the cash ratio for the commercial banks. for(the higher the cash ratio, the lesser the power of commercial banks to grant credit thereby creating money and vice versa.

(b) Fixed Deposit: This type of account is also known as time deposit because, money is deposited in it for specific period of time. Individuals and organizations that have excess money in their current accounts use part of the money in opening this type of account. Money deposited in this type of account is always meant for specific purposes for the owners and must last for at least six months or more before it can be withdrawn. Before the money in fixed deposit account is withdrawn, the bank must be given between 7 to 14 days notice. The bank issues receipt or deposit account pass-book and also pays interest to the owners of fixed deposit account, which is equally fixed depending on the amount one deposits.

(c) Money Market: A money market may be defined as a market for the lending and borrowing of short-term loans. This type of market aids all forms of business transactions. A lot of financial institutions involved in this type of market, purchase and sell funds on short-term bases.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

8. Some of the reasons why the bulk of West African foreign trade is directed away from Africa to Europe and America are as follows: (i) African countries produce mainly agricultural products and that makes exchange of goods between them very difficult. (ii) Industries that make use of the raw materials which are the main products of West African countries are found in Europe and America.
(iii) Ineffective transport and communication system in Africa. (iv) Low level of technological development makes it difficult for African countries to produce goods needed in the continent hence our going to Europe and America. (v) Over reliance on foreign products has made West Africans to have the notion that foreign products are superior. (vi) Lack of true entrepreneurship in West Africa has denied us those that are ready to bear industrial risks. (vii) Absence of developed markets in Africa where our system of exchange is still underdeveloped and there is low demand as a result of low per capita income.(viii) Affiliation to former colonial masters direct West African trade attention to Europe and America.(ix) Also, capital goods which West Africans depend heavily upon are mainly produced in Europe and America. x) Another reason is over-dependence on aids and grants which come mainly from Europe and America.xi) The wand economic order tends to be in favour of the developed countries of Europe and America, hence the call for New International Economic Order (NIEO).

9. The important roles played by agriculture in the economy of my country include:
(i) Provision of Food: Agriculture is the main source of food supply used in feeding the teeming population both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. (ii) Source of Raw Materials: Majority of the raw materials used in industries in my country are got from agriculture. (iii) Provision of Employment: Agriculture provides employment opportunities for more than 60 percent of the population country. (iv) Source of Income: The selling of agricultural products after the reservation of those used for food, earn a lot of money to individuals and government in my country. (v) Earning of Foreign Exchange: Agriculture is the major earner of foreign exchange because it constitutes the main bulk of exports of my country (vi) Creation of Market Tor Industrial Products: Industrial products like hoes, fertilizers, insecticides pesticides, cutlass, etc. are bought and used by farmers. (vii) It Provides Money for Industries: The major bulk of money used in establishing and financing industries in my country comes from agriculture which is the mainstay of the economy of my country. (viii) Source of Labour for Industries: Agriculture provides unskilled labour which is in abundance to industries in my country.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Economics

10(a) The objectives of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) include the followings:
(i) Stabilization of price of in the world market in order to eliminate fluctuation. (ii) Coordination and harmonization of oil policy of member nations to bring them in line with the standard set by OPEC. (iii) Stabilization of oil income of its member-nations. (iv:’ To ensure steady supply of oil to consuming nations. (v) To negotiate for the participation of member-nations in oil exploitation and exploration. (vi) It fixes and allocates production quotas to member-nations:(vii) OPEC examines and ensures that participation of foreign multinational companies in oil exploitation and exploration does not jeopardize the interest of its member nations. (b)The problems of OPEC are as follows: (i) One of the problems facing OPEC is the declining loyalty of its member-nations which has made it difficult for the decisions of the organization to be obeyed. (ij) The present challenge and competition posed by non-OPEC oil producing nations like Britain, Mexico, Norway etc, give OPEC a serious food for thought. (iii) OPEC IS also faced with the problem of its member-nations side-tracking their agreed and fixed production quota. (iv) The world economic depression which brought about fall in oil price affected OPEC drastically. (v) OPEC is also faced with the problem of increasing research by Western advanced nations to find substitute for oil. (vi) The activities of the advanced nations In stockpiling oil which contributed to the fall of oil price is causing great concern to OPEC. (vii). Political disagreement which sometimes leads to war between member-nations, like Iran and Iraq war, causes a serious problem to OPEC. (viii) The rivalry for the leadership of the organization between Saudi Arabia and Iran is a big problem to OPEC. (c) Remedies that have been adopted to curtail the problems of OPEC include:'(i) Members of OPEC have embarked on joint research in order to counteract that of the Western advanced nations to find substitute for oil. (ii) The organization always imposes penalty on its members that side-track their agreed fixed production quota. (iii) OPEC tries to maintain Inelastic price by fixing production quota for its members. (iv) The organization has made and is making every effort to create unity among its members. (v) In order to solve the leadership rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran, the organization rotates its key posts among its member-nations.(vi)’ OPEC tries to maintain a reasonable price In order to avoid price fluctuation.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions

1. Government refers to all the following, except
A. an institution of the state.
B. the process of ruling a political community.
C. the exercise of power and authority ..
D. the activities of decision-makers.
E. the act of civil disobedience.

2. Government as the act of governing means the
A. activities of pressure groups and political parties.
B. act of vetoing a bill.
C. orders of judiciary and legislature.
D. activities by which government policies are made and implemented.
E. activities of parliamentary opposition.

3. Unwritten constitution means that the constitution is
A. not written down.
B. based only on convention
C. not contained in any single book.
D. in draft. not approved.

The delegation of Administrative Powers to the local units with the central supervision and control is called
A. devolution.
B. decentralization.
C. deconcentration.
D. centralization.
E. concentration.

5. Which of the following is not the function of the government?
A. Building of roads, bridges, canals, etc.
B. Provision of education
C. Maintenance of relations with other states
D. defence of territory from external attack
E. Provision of all the material needs of all citizens

6. A flexible constitution can only be amended by
A. two-third (2/3) majority vote in the legislature.
B. referendum
C. three-quarters (3/4) majority vote in the legislature.
D. plebiscite.
E. simple majority vote in the legislature.

7. Which one of the following countries has an unwritten constitution?
A. Great Britain
B. France
C. United States of America
D. Federal Republic of Germany
E. German Democratic Republic

A rigid constitution is said to be best suited for a
A. Federal Government
B. Socialist Government.
C. Military Government.
D. Unitary government.
E. Fascist Government.

9. Federal Elections were held in Nigeria in
A. 1946, 1951, 1954, 1979 and 1983.
B. 1954, 1959, 1964,1979 and 1983.
C. 1923, 1946,1951,1979 and 1983.
D. 1954, 1960,1964,1979 and 1983.
E. 1960, 1963,1964,1979 and 1983.

10. The two components of sovereignty are
A. the rule of law and fundamental human rights.
B. political power and political authority.
C. political culture and political socialization
D. influence and political authority.
E. political independence and supreme authority of the state within its territory.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

11. Nigeria broke diplomatic relations with Israel in 1973 because of Israel’s
A. recognition of Biafra.
B. occupation of Egyptian territory.
C. refusal to give aid to Nigeria.
D. economic relations with South Africa.
E. raid on Entebbe airport in Uganda.

12. The United Nations organization (UNO) has its headquarters in
A. Britain.
D. China.
E. France.

13. The state is different from the government because
A. the State unlike the Government is permanent.
B. the Government is made up of powerful people.
C. members of the Government are elected.
D. the state is created by God.
E. The state can exercise absolute pow

14. A state is a special form of human association because it
A. has a legitimate monopoly of life and death penalties over its citizens.
B. is the richest association in society.
C. has a constitution approved by the citizens.
D. can punish law breakers.
E. has a government.

15. Which of the following is not relevant to communism?
A. Democracy
B. Violent revolution
C. Friedrich Engels
D. Class war
E. Private Enterprise

16. A Nigerian citizen can only be deprived of his citizenship if he is
A. condemned to death.
B. convicted by a court of law.
C. married to a foreigner.
D. holding a dual citizenship.
E. an armed robber.

17. In the process of governing, OUTPUT refers to
A. the influence of pressure group.
B. demand of the political system.
C. the decision of the government.
D. the opinion of the electorate.
E. the influence of political parties.

18. Another word for red-tapism is
A. democracy.
B. autocracy.
C. idiosyncrasy.
D. bureaucracy
E. theocracy.

19. Rule adjudication is the main function of the
A. Executive.
B. President.
C. Legislature.
D. Judiciary.
E. National

20. The major problem that arose from the 1979 election centred around the
A. inability of many voters to find their names on the voters register.
B. cancellation of election results in many constituencies because of alleged irregularities.
C. inability of some dissatisfied candidates to seek redress in the court of la
D. controversy over the presidential election result
E. widespread complaint that too many elections were scheduled too close together.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

21. The following. are the key factors which influenced Nigerias foreign relations except
A. peaceful coexistence.
B.-economic dependence.
C. non-interference.
D. respect for territorial integrity.
E. international co-operation.

22. The independence of Nigeria was in 1945 with the coming to power in Britain of
A. Conservative Party.
B. Tory Party.
C. Liberal Party.
D. Labour Party.
E. Democratic Party.

23. Which of the following is not an accepted way of resolving international conflict?
A. Diplomacy
B. Propaganda
C. Non-military use of force
D. Military force (war)
E. Nuclear war

24. The membership of the Council of States in Nigeria is made up of
A. Federal Ministers.
B. State commissioners.
C. state governors.
D. the Head of State and the Traditional Chiefs.
E. the State Governors and the Head of State.

25. The Commonwealth is
A. an economic organization.
B. made up of all independent ex-colonies of Britain.
C made up of all countries who arc friendly with Britain.
D. made up of independent European countries.
E. made up of independent African countries who were ex-colonies of Britain.

26. In the Oyo traditional political system, the Alaafin of Oyo was elected or chosen by a group known as the
A. Bales.
B. Obas.
C. Ogboni.
D. Bashorun.
E. Oyomesi.

The declaration of a state of emergency in Western Nigeria was protected by the constitution of
A. 1954
B. 1951
C. 1960
D. 1963
E. 1948

28. The primary purpose of the state is to
A. establish a system of law and order
B. train people to become good citizens.
C. cater for all the needs of the citizens.
D. ensure the self sufficiency of its people.
E. ensure that its people enjoy absolute freedom.

29. The Armed Forces Ruling Council came into existence under the
A. Buhari Administration.
B. Gowon Administratio
C. Ironsi Administration.
D. Obasanjo Administration.
E. Babangida Administration

30. Which of the following is not a specialized agency of the United Nations Organization?
A. World Health Organization
B. The Food and Agriculture Organization
C. The International Labour Organization
D. The General Assembly of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

 31. The creation of the office of the Prime Minister in Nigeria was accomplished in.
A. 1951.
D. 1959.
E. 1960.

32. Which of the following is not a function of a party secretariat?
A. Electing the leader of the party
B. Organizing party conferences
C. Publishing the party’s manifesto
D. Planning party strategy to win election
Handling publicity for the party

33. The first Military President of Nigeria is
A. Lt. General Olusegun Obasanjo.
B. Major General J.U. Aguiyi-Ironsi.
C. Major General Ibrahim Babangida.
D.General Murtala Mohammed.
E. GeneralYabukuGowon.

34. The following factors favoured the introduction of Indirect Rule in Nigeria except the
A. shortage of
B. shortage of funds.
C. existence of a system of taxation.
D. existence of educated elite.
E. existence of organized traditional systems.

35. The psychological support a regime gets from its citizens if they believe the regime is right and ought to be obeyed, is known as
A. sovereignty.
B. power.
C. authority.
D. influence.
E. legitimacy.

36. The voluntary activities of members of a society in the selection of rulers is known as
A. political participation.
B. political socialisation.
C~political decision.
D. political culture.
E. political authority.

37. Residual powers under theNigerian Independence Constitution were the powers exercised by
A. the Federal Government.
B. the Regional Governments.
C. the Local Governments.
D. both the Federal and Regional Governments.
E. both the Local and regional Governments.

38. The highest court of appeal under the Republican Constitution of Nigeria was the
A. Federal High Court.
B. Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
C. Regional Court of Appeal.
D. Supreme Court. E. Federal Court of Appeal.

39. Nigeria became a federation of 19 states in
A. 1875.
B. 1976.
C. 1967.
D. 1978
E. 1979.

40. A popular form of proportional representation is
A. communal representation
B. single transferable vote.
C. the alternative.
D. the second ballot.
E. electoral college.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

41. A political concept that is composed of the attitudes, beliefs, emotions and values of a society is called political
A. culture.
B. single transferable vote.
C. authority.
D. socialization.
E. power.

42. Flexible constitution is advantageous because it
A. guarantees political stability
B. prevents the passing of hasty bills by the legislature.
C. can cope with emergency periods.
D. allows for continuity. prevents dictatorship.

43. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is
A. an economic association.
B. a political association.
C. cultural association.
D. a social association.
E. an inter-ethnic association.

44. Which of the following is not an aim of the Organization of African Unity (OAU)?
A. Promotion of unity and solidarity among African states
B. Co-operation of efforts to achieve a better life for the African states
C. Defence of the sovereignty and independence of African states
D. Eradication of all forms of colonialism and foreign exploitation in Africa
E. Enthronement of democratic governments in Africa

45. It is the duty of a government to perform all the following functions, except
A. preventing internal disorder
B. ensuring security of life and property.
C. providing basic welfare services.
D. providing all the needs of its citizens.
E. promoting industrial and commercial development.

46. Which of the following concepts is out of place?
A. Fascism
B. Welfarism
D. Authoritarianism
E. Dictatorship

47. The primary objective of !3lrpolitical parties is to
A. promote the general interest of members of the public
B. eradicate corruption in public,life.
C. control the government.
D. campaign for vote.
E. educate the electorate.. .: ;.~

48. The French policy of Assimilation:
A. was a device to transfer technology to Africa.
B. was the same in theory as the British policy of Indirect Rule.
C. was aimed at converting Africans to Frenchmen.
D. enabled the French to stay in Africa.
E. produced well educated Africans who opposed the policy.

49. Military governors were members of the Supreme Military Council under the
A. Murtala Mohammed Regime.
B. Yakubu Gowon Regime.
C. Ibrahim Babangida Regime.
D. Olusegun Obasanjo Regime.
E. Muhammadu Buhari Regime

50. The use of forced labour was one of the features of
A. British colonial policy.
B. French colonial policy.
C. American colonial policy.
D. Japanese colonial policy.
E. divide and Rule policy


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

51.The controversy over the 1979 Presidential election result was
A. over the dispute on the conduct of the election.
B. because educated Nigerians did not approve who received the number of votes.
C. due to the interpretation of 1/4 of the vote cast in 2/3 of all the states in the Federation.
D. because the winning candidate did not pay his taxes as and when due in the past three years.
E. because one of the candidates was declared elected when the result for one of the states had not been received.

52. All the following were frontline fighters for Nigerias independence except
A. Obafemi Awolowo.
B. Nnamdi Azikiwe.
C. Lateef Jakande.
D. Aminu Kano.
E. Herbert Macaulay.

53. It is argued that most of the new states of Africa cannot remain faithful to the doctrines of non-alignment mainly because of
A. corruption.
B. ethnic problems.
C. bad leadership.
D. poor economy.
E. illiteracy.

54. The first political party in Nigeria was
A. National Council of Nigeria Citizens (NCNC).
B. Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP).
C. Action Group (AP).
D. Northern People’s Congress. (NPC).
E. Dynamic Party (DP).

55. To which of these countries did Nigeria send peacekeeping force?
A. South Africa
B. Angola
C. Chad
D. Namibia
E. Ghana .

56. In the federation, the purpose of enumerating the powers of the central government is to
A. ensure efficient administration.
B: ensure greater unity.
C. reduce the financial burden of the’ units.
D. limit its powers against those of the uni
E. reduce corruption in the government of the units.

57. The ultimate aim of a communist system of government is the distribution of goods and services according to
A. age.
B. qualification.
C. party loyalty.
D. need, want, and ability.
E. status.

58. Under what system of government does the state require ownership and control of the means of production for its use in benefiting the population?
A. Capitalism
B. Socialism
C. Feudalism
D. Welfarism
E. Communalism

59. The question of Nigerian civil war was raised for the first time at the meeting of the OAU in September 1967 in
A. Kampala.
B. Addis Ababa.
C. Lagos.
D. Kinshasa.
E. Nairobi.

60. Nigeria objected to the discussion of the civil war in the OAU summit on the grounds that
A. it amounts to interference in its internal affairs.
B. some African countries recognized Biafra.
C. Tanzania and Ivory Coast recognized Biafra.
D. the resolution of the conflict was difficult.
E. the OAU was not capable of resolving the conflict.

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government ANSWERS
1E 2D 3C 4A 5E 6E 7A  8A 9B 10E 11B 12C 13A 14A 15E 16D 17C 18D 19D 20D 21B 22D  23E  24E  25B  26E 27C 28A  29E 30D 31C 32A 33C 34D 35E  36A 37B 38D 39B  40B 41A 42C 43A 44E 45D 46B 47C 48C  49B 50B 51C 52C 53D 54B  55C  56D 57D 58B 59D 60A


Government paper 2

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

1. What is a state? What characteristic must a state possess?

A state may be defined as a politically organized body of people occupying a definite geographical territory with an organized government entirely free from external control and with coercive power to secure obedience from its citizens and others. When we talk about state in this case, we do not mean a state or a component part of a country like Nigeria that practices federalism. That is states like Lagos, Imo, Ogun, Borno, etc. Examples of states we mean in this discussion are Nigeria, Togo, USA, Gambia, Zambia, China, India, Poland, etc.


The above definition of a state possesses the following four characteristics: (i) Population: One major attribute of a state is population. For state to exist there must be a given number of people which has no minimum or maximum that will occupy it. (ii) Territory: A state must possess a definite territory which has no limit to its size. This territory must have clear- cut boundaries that will separate it from other states. The term territory refers not only to hard surface of the earth but other things like air space, water, lakes, mountains, natural resources, etc. (iii) Government: A state must have a machinery called government, ” that will steer its affairs, Government performs its functions on behalf of the state, The existence and ” .survival of a state are maintained by the government. (iv) Sovereignty: The last characteristic of a state – is sovereignty. A state must have the supreme power to enable it make and enforce laws. Such a sovereign state must be free from external control.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

2. Define Republican form of government and state its essential characteristics.

A republican form of government is that which has a head of state elected by the people. That means that ” a sovereign state is referred to as a republic if the country has no traditional ruler or his representative as its “,head of state but with the one chosen by the people with a fixed term of office. Such head of state is known ,as president in a republic, The president may be an executive president or a ceremonial president.

(b) Essential Characteristics of Republican Form of Government:
(a) The head of state, known as the president, is elected by the people.
(b) A republic must be politically independent.
(c) Members of the legislature in a republic are directly elected by the people
(d) The functions of government in a republic are performed by officials and not traditional rulers,
(e) A republican constitution is entirely home-made.
(f) There exist political and legal equality in a republic.
(g) Rule of law is an essential feature of a republic.
(h) Popular sovereignty in which the ultimate power of the state rests with the people is another essential feature of republic.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

3. (a) What are the major difference between the civil service and public service?

1. A public corporation is managed by members of board of directors.
2. A Chairman acts as the political head of a public corporation.
3. Employees of a public corporation are called public servants.
4. Workers of a public corporation are appointed or employed by the board of directors. ‘
5. The administrative head of a public corporation is the General Manager.
6. Ministerial responsibility is limited in a public corporation.
7. A public corporation can contract for loans.
8. A public corporation take decision quicker.
9. A public corporation though profit making is not the main motive for its establishment; it is expected to make profit not to run at a loss.
10. A public corporation provides social services and amenities.
11. A public corporation does not pay its revenue into the consolidated fund
12. The staff of a corporation enjoy better conditions of service.
13. The public corporation is not subjected to the legislative annual budget.

The civil service or .a.’ministry is managed by a minister advised’ by-the Director-General (permanent secretary)

A Minister is the political head-of-a ministry.Employees of a civil service or a ministry or a government department are known as civil servants.Workers of a government department are employed by the Public Service Commission. The Director-General (Permanent Secretary) is the administrative head of a ministry. In a ministry, ministerial responsibility are unlimited. A ministry cannot contract for loan. Red-tapism or bureaucracy makes it difficult for a ministry to take quick decision. A ministry is a non-profit making organization and therefore it is not expected to make profit. A ministry or civil service performs administrative functions. A ministry pay its revenue into consolidated fund The conditions of service of staff of a ministry are poor. A ministry depends directly on annual budget.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

(b) Discuss the main criticisms against the Nigerian civil service.
(i) Political Instability
(ii) Political Interference
(iii) Tribalism
(iv) Bribery and Corruption
(v) Negative Attitude to Work
(vi) Red-tapism or Bureaucracy
(vii) Poor Conditions of Service (viii) Lack of Qualified Personnel
(ix) The Unfriendliness of Civil Servants
(x) Over-staffing (xi) Inadequate Training Facilities
(xii) Over-devotion to Precedents
(xiii) Waste of Manpower and Resources


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

4. What is proportional representation? Discuss its merits and demerits.
4(a) Proportional representation is used to elect representatives in multi-member constituencies. This system is used to secure representation in the legislature in such a way that each group or political party gets seats in proportion to the percentage of votes cast in favour of a group or political party, the ‘more the percentage of votes cast in favour of a group or political party, the more the seats that will be allocated to it. The system provides representation for all interest groups in a given community. Proportional representation has two forms viz: The single transferable vote or the quota system and the multi-member party list.

(a) It is argued that proportional representation gives a true reflection of popular votes,
(b) The system provides representation for all interest groups in a community
(c) It is a more democratic system of election. (d) The system protects the interest of minority groups.
(e) This system especially in a multi member constituency gives the voters wider choice.
(f) It avoids wastage of surplus votes. (g) The system gives the voter the chance to choose candidates on both personal and party merits.

(i) Proportional representation is a complicated form of election of representatives
(ii) The system is also very expensive to operate.
(iii) It encourages multiplication of political parties which results in election violence.
(iv) The system does not create room for political stability.
(v) The inability of different political parties in winning clear majority in the legislature leads to the formation of coalition government which does not make for efficiency.
(vi) The multiplication of parties makes it difficult for the voters to assess them very well before voting; they therefore vote blindly.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

5. Discuss the functions of a modern legislature
(a) House of Representatives of the People: The legislature acts as the house of those elected to speak for and represent the people of a country.
(b) Law-making: Making of laws that direct and guide the affairs of the nation and guarantee peace and progress of a country is one of the main functions of the legislature.
(c) Amendment of the Constitution: It is also the duty of the legislature to amend the constitution of a country whenever it is deemed necessary.
(d) Control of the Executive: To avoid misrule, the legislature is empowered to check and control the activities of the executive organ of government.
(e) Approval of Appointments: Another important function of the legislature is to approve the appointment of the President or Prime Minister of the country.
(f) Control of Public Expenditure: The legislative organ of government controls and approves the proposed financial expenditure of the executive arm.
(g) Platform for Expression of Opinion: Members of the public express their public opinion in the legislature through their elected representatives who enjoy what is known as parliamentary immunity which protects them from legal action (h) Ratification of International Treaties: It is also the duty of the parliament to approve treaties entered into by the President or Prime Minister with other countries
(i) Probe Function: The legislature in its job of checking the activities of other organs of government has the power of setting up panels to investigate the activities of ,any department of the government.
j) Medium of Enlightenment and Education: The legislature enlightens and educates people of the country through debates by its members.
(k) Dissolution of the Parliament: The legislature has power to dissolve the parliament when it deems it necessary or at its expiration.
(I) Removal of President: The legislature has power of impeaching the President of a country when he is no more abiding by the tenets of the constitution which he swore to abide by and protect.
(m) Removal of Judges: Any judge like Chief Justice of a country who fails to perform his judicial functions can be removed or recommended for removal by the legislative arm.
(n) Judicial Functions: The legislature in some countries serves as the highest judicial authority or the last Court of Appeal. Example is the House of Lords in Great Britain.
(0) Training of Future Leaders: Through the various activities of the legislature, it serves as an avenue for the training of a country’s future leaders:


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

6. What is Non-alignment? Examine the advantages of this policy.

The Non- alignment is the idea or notion of a group of nations in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Caribbean and Europe to be neutral in the cold war between the Western capitalist and the Eastern socialist powers.

(i) Non-Alignment helps to oppose the division of the world into antagonistic power blocs.
(ii) The movement fights for the eradication of racism and Zionism and all forms of discrimination on the basis of sex, colour, class, religion or creed.
(iii)Another advantage of non-alignment is that the movement has contributed to the elimination of all vestiges of colonialism, neo-colonialism and all forms of imperialism.
(iv) Non-alignment has an advantage of being a movement for fostering world peace.
(v) The movement helps its member-nations to participate in making global decisions that affect their future.
(vi) It is a movement for peaceful resolution of national and international disputes.
(vii) It helps in bringing the economic gap and the struggle for fairer system of international economic relation through new international economic order.
(viii) Opposition to nuclear weapon and halting the arms race and supporting all efforts aimed at disarmament are other advantages of Non-alignment
(ix) The movement helps to safeguard their national independence, sovereign equality and refraining from the use of, or threat of use of force in international affairs and all forms of aggression.
(x) Finally Non-alignment is advantageous because it helps its members to pursue their own political, economic and social development without foreign interference.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

7. Examine the factors which contributed to the Action Group crisis of 1962


.One of the factors which contributed to the Action Group crisis of 1962 was personality clash between Chief Obafemi Awolowo, the party leader, and Chief Akintola, its deputy leader. Chief Awolowo saw Chief S.L. Akintola as an over-ambitious and egocentric individual that wanted to supplant him as the leader of the party. This made Chief Awolowo to view his deputy, Chief Akintola as a traitor and perfidy personified who must be removed from the party.

Differences of opinion contributed immensely to the crisis that broke out in the Action Group in 1962. Introduction of democratic socialism as the new ideology polarized members of the Action Group into two antagonistic ideological groups of the radicals and conservatives. Democratic socialism envisaged a mixed socialist economy that will combine elements of public and private enterprises. The capitalist conservative members who had commercial and business interests rejected the democratic ideology in toto.

The most conflicting issue that tore members of the Action Group into shreds was the question of whether or not the party should participate in the formation of the national government at the federal level. The party was divided into two main factions: one led by Chief Awolowo while the other faction was headed by Chief Akintola. While Chief Akintola’s group supported co-operation with NPC- controlled federal government; Chief Awolowo’s group did not want to have anything to do with the NPC. Instead he preferred a progressive alliance with the NCNC in order to rout out NPC from power. This rancorous issue caused a split in Action Group.

The allegation that Chief Awolowo who was the leader of opposition in the Federal House of Representatives wanted to be consulted as the party leader before any important policy decision is taken by Western Regional Government headed by Chief Akintola was another major cause of the crisis in Action Group. Chief Akintola and other officials of Western Regional Government saw Chief Awolowo as a political usurper. At the party’s annual congress held in Jos in February, 1962, a decision was reached to abolish the post of deputy leader, dismiss Chief Ayo Rosiji from the office of Federal Party Secretary and to remove Chief Akintola from the office as both the deputy leader of the party and as Premier. Chief Akintola was found guilty of the charge of anti-party activities, maladministration, disloyalty and gross indiscipline. A letter signed by a majority of the party members in the Regional House of Assembly expressing lack of confidence in the premier was presented to the governor-Sir Adesoji Aderemi who was also the Ooni of Ife. The Governor dismissed Chief Akintola from the office as Premier and appointed Alhaji D.S. Adegbenro, the parliamentary leader of the House, in his place.

At a meeting of the Regional House convened to ratify these executive decisions a free-far-all fight ensued, started by supporters of Chief Akintola as a strategy to prevent the House from conducting its affairs. Police had to use tear gas to dismiss members from the chamber. As a result of the grave disorder and confusion, the legislative chamber was locked by the police on the orders of the Prime Minister when an attempt to hold a second meeting of the House met with a greater fight even with the police that stood by. The federal government decided to invoke the constitutional powers and declared a state of emergency in the Western Region and appointed Senator (Dr.) M. A. Majekodunmi, the Federal Minister of Health, as Administrator of the Region. Chief Akintola was reinstated as Premier at the end of the state of emergency which lasted for 6 months. Meanwhile, Chief Awolowo and thirty others were on November 2, 1962 charged with plotting to overthrow the Federal Government and at the end of the trial,

Chief Awolowo was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. On coming back to power, Chief Akintola and his supporters formed a new political party, the United Progressive Party and with some members of the NCNC with whom they had formed a new coalition government joined together to form the Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP). The federal government set up commission of inquiry headed by Justice G.BA Coker to investigate the allegation of mismanagement of public funds in certain statutory corporations in the Western Region. The commission discovered many irregularities, maladministration and misappropriation of public funds for party purposes but Chief Akintola was not found guilty. The final outcome of the crisis in the Action Group was the carving out of the Mid Western Region from the Western Region which Action Group had consistently opposed.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

8. Account for the introduction of the Indirect Rule system in Nigeria and its failure in some parts of the country
(i) Lack of personnel
(ii) Inadequate fund
(iii) Its success in other countries
(iv) To preserve traditions and customs
(v) To involve traditional rulers
(vi) Britain’s unwillingness to be involved financially
(vii) Its cheapness
(viii) Favorable political atmosphere (ix) Its beneficial effects
(x) Language difficulties.
(xi) Vast areas involved
(xii) Lack of knowledge of the areas involved
(xiii) Poor transportation and communication system:


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

(i) Absence of Traditional Rulers
(ii) Appointment of Warrant Chiefs
(iii) The Type of Political Administration Practised
(iv) Small Size of Igbo Society
(v) Absence of Well Organized System of Taxation
(vi) Non-submissiveness of the People
(vii) Religion
(viii) Education
(ix) Interference with the Existing Traditions
(x) Alienation of Educated Elite


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

9. Compare the judicial system of the pre-colonial Hausa/Fulani society with that of the Igbo society
(a) While the pre-colonial Hausa Fulani society operated a centralized system of government, the Igbo society had segmentary and fragmented system of government known as acephalous.
(b) The pre-colonial Hausa/Fulani society was a chiefly society with all the organs of government concentrated in a single central authority led by the Emir, while the Igbo society was a chiefless society that had dispersed political authority that lacked a single central authority. (c) The Emir was head of the judicial system in pre-colonial Hausa/Fulani society, while the Igbo society had no central authority resembling that of Emir. (d) While the Sharia which is a-body of Moslem laws governed the pre-colonial Hausa/Fulani judicial system, the !gbo pre-colonial judicial system was not hinged on religious laws. (e) The Alkali, a sole judge trained in religious matters adjudicated in all cases governed by Sharia, the Igbo society has no such sole judge. (f) While age grades and other institutions executed the policies and enforced laws under the control of the council of the elders in Igbo society, the Emir executed his laws and policies in Hausa/Fulani society.

10. Mention the aims of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and discuss some of its achievements
(a) To promote the unity and solidarity of African states.
(b) To co-ordinate and intensify their co-operation and efforts to achieve a better life for the people of Africa.
(c) To defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence.
(d) To eradicate all forms of colonialism from Africa.
(e) To promote international co-operation, having due regard to the charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
(f) To promote peaceful resolution of disputes among member states through negotiation, mediation, consultation and arbitration.
(g) To speak with one voice on the world affairs so as to present a united front. (h) To preserve the African personality, culture, and traditions.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Government

(i) Promotion of unity
(ii) Settlement of disputes
(iii) Visit and exchange of ideas
(iv) Settlement of internal disputes (v) Eradication of colonialism and imperialism in the continent of Africa
(vi) Fight against apartheid (vii) Economic achievements (viii) Communication link
(ix) Provision of one voice (x) Provision of a melting forum (xi) Cultural awareness (xii) Establishment of ADB
(xiii) Provision of aid (xiv) Promotion of international co-operation
(xv) Improvement of quality of lives.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology paper 1

Now answer the following questions:
1. Euglena moves by the
A. whipping action of its flagellum B. beating of its cilia C. rotating action of the flagellum D. pushing out a jet of water from an organelle E. beating the pseudopodia and cilia simultaneously.

2. In unicellular organisms, essential nutrients can be transported directly to all parts of their body by the process of diffusion only because unicellular organisms have;
A. a large surface area to volume ratio B. a large volume to surface area ratio C. permeable cell membrane D. outer membrane made of cellulose E. their bodies are always immersed in the nutrient material.

3. Which of the following is not present in the nucleus of a cell?
A. Chromosomes B. Nucleolus C. Mitochondrion D. Genes E. Chromatin.

4. The network of double membrane that helps convey materials through the cytoplasm is the
A. plasma Membrane B. vascular membrane C. nuclear membrane D. endoplasmic reticulum E. mitochondrion

5. In aerobic respiration, oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the A. cytoplasm B. mitochondria
C. lysosome D. vacuoles E. ribosomes

Study the diagram below and use it to answer Questions 6 and 7.

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Biology

6. What stage of mitotic division is represented in the diagram of the cell illustrated above?
A. Prophase B. Telophase C. Anaphase D. Metaphase E. Interphase.

7. This stage of mitosis is characterized by the
A. movement of the chromosomes to the poles B. arrangement of chromosomes on the equatorial plate C. centromeres moving apart along the spindle D. interaction of the spindles with the chromosomes E. condensation of chromosomes and formation of spindles.

8. The ability of organisms to maintain a constant internal environment is known as
A. diuresis B. endosmosis C .plasmolysis D. dialysis E. homeostasis.

9. Double fertilization is said to occur in flowering plants because:
A. two embryos are formed B. one egg is fertilized twice C. two sperms fertilize each egg D. one embryo and an endosperm nucleus are formed E. two sperms and two pollen grains are involved.

10. The bicuspid valve is located between the
A. left auricle and left ventricle B. aorta and the left ventricle C. superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava D. right auricle and the superior vena cava E. right auricle and the right ventricle.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

11. The pulmonary artery carries
A. deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs B. oxygenated
blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. C. oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the right auricle D. deoxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the right auricle E. oxygenated blood from the lungs to the right auricle.

12. Which of the following blood components has the greatest affinity for oxygen and carbondioxide?
A. Blood plasma B. Leucocytes C. Thrombocytes D. Erythrocytes E. Lymphocytes

13. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by a sheet of muscle called
A. pleural membrane B. intercostal muscle C. diaphragm D. pericardium E. epiglottis

14. Which of the following organs is responsible for controlling the body temperature regulation and water-balance in mammals?
A. Kidney B. Hypothalamus C. Parathyroid D. Adrenal E. Thymus.

15. De-amination is the process during which
A. excess amino acid is broken down into ammonia and a keto acid B. fats and oils are converted into an emulsion for absorption C. excess glucose is converted and stored as glycogen in the liver D. glycogen is reconverted into glucose through the action of glucagons E. excess amino acid is converted into proteins.

16. Which of the following statements on urine production is not correct?
A. Concentrated urine is produced under the control of antidiuretic hormone B. The total volume of urine produced depends on the need for water excretion C. if there is an excess intake of water, dilute urine is excreted. D. if there is a shortage of water in the body the volume of urine produced decreases E. in the presence of antidiuretic hormone,dilute urine is produced.

17. The pigment in the malphigian layer responsible for skin colouration is known as
A. haemoglobin B. Haemocyanin C. Chlorocruorin D. Haemoerythrin E. Melanin.

18. Co-ordination is achieved in the body of mammals through the action of the
A. endocrine and nervous systems B. skeletal and nervous systems C. muscular and nervous systems D. circulatory and nervous systems E. skeletal, muscular and nervous system.

19. Which of the following statements is correct of hormones? Hormones are;
A. secreted into blood through ducts B. secreted directly into the blood stream C. inactive chemical substances in the blood stream D. non-specific in their mode of action. E. secreted at the site of the target organs.

20. The pituitary is called ‘master gland’ because
A. it is located in the brain B. its secretions are more numerous than those of any other gland. C. its secretion controls other glands D. it is the only organ that produces hormone E. It regulates muscular movements.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

21. Auxins are produced in the
A. petiole of leaves B. parenchyma of roots and shoots C. epidermis of roots and shoots D. Apical regions of roots and shoots E. Sclerenchyma tissues of roots and shoots.

22. The brain and the spinal cord make up the
A. Peripheral nervous system B. Automatic nervous system C. Central nervous system D. Somatic nervous system E. Sympathetic Nervous system.

23. Which of the following specialized structures are stimulated by touch, pressure, pain, heat and cold?
A. B. Synapse C. Cell bodies D. Myelin sheath E. Relay neurones .

24. Which of the following is not correct about a fruit?
A. It may contain many seeds B. is a mature C. Is covered by the pericarp D. may develop from the receptacle E. possesses only one scar .

25. Which structure in the maize grain stores food?
A. Radicle B. Embryo C. Cytoplasm D. Seed coat E. Endosperm

26. Which of the following does not occur during photosynthesis?
A. Energy from sunlight is absorbed B. Carbon dioxide is evolved C. Glucose is synthesized D. Oxygen is given off E. Water is split.

27. Even though some flowering plants contain accessory pigments which give them colours, they still contain the pigment
A. Melanin B. Chlorophyll C. Xanthophyll D. Carotene E. Chlorocruorin.

28. Which of the following is not regarded as a micro-nutrient or trace-element for plant growth?
A. Phosphorus B. Zinc C. Boron D. Silicon E. Molybdenum.

29. In a water culture experiment, a plant showed poor growth and yellowing of the leaves. These symptoms were probably due to the absence of
A. Calcium B. Phosphorus C. Iron D. Zinc E. copper.

30. The relationship between an herbivore and the bacteria which live in its Caecum is known as:
A. parasitism B. Symbiosis C. Commensalism D. Saprophytism E. Predation.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

31. Autotrophic nutrition may be defined in terms of food obtained
A. from other organisms in exchange for some products. B. by the breakdown of complex substances C. by an organism utilizing its own store of energy D. by synthesizing simple substances using energy from an external source E. in a synthesized form from other living organism.

32. Which of the following is not classified as a terrestrial habitat?
A. Forest B. Guinea Savannah C. Afro Alpine D. Littoral zone E. Desert.

33. Which of the following does not contribute to the biomass in an ecosystem?
A. Producers B. Food chains C. Consumers D. Micro-organisms E. Saprophytes.

34. Which of the following is not a characteristic feature of tropical rainforest habitat?
A. Trees with longer poles than those in savannah B. Fewer canopy strata than the savannah C. Many more trees and climbers than savannah D. Plenty of leaf litters on the ground E. More diverse communities than the savannah.

35. Which of the following factors is not associated with aquatic habitat?
A. Temperature B. Light intensity C. Humidity D. Turbidity E. Wave action.

36. Terrestrial organisms which are capable of maintaining their body temperature constant within fairly close limits are referred to as
A. thermoclines B. Homeotherms C. Poikilotherms D. Eurytherms E. Stenotherms.

37. Which of the following statements is not true of climax vegetation? It;
A. is an ecological phenomenon B. is a stable community C. eliminates competition D. results from succession E. involves the colonization of a habitat.

38. The causative organism of sleeping sickness is the
A. Trypanosome B. Plasmodium C. Vibrio bacterium D. Penicillin E. Tsetse fly.

39. Which of the following are not causative organisms of plant diseases?
A. Fungi B. Viruses C. Bacteria D. Nematodes E. Cercariae.

40. The vector of the malarial parasite is the
A. Male Anopheles B. Female Culex C. Male Culex D. Female Anopheles E. Female Aedes.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

41. A constituent of the exhaust gases of motor vehicles which causes serious air pollution is
A. water vapour B. Carbon dioxide C. Carbon monoxide D. Oxygen E. Ozone.

42. Which of the following steps would not be taken to protect or conserve fishing grounds from over-exploitation?
A. Use of nets with all sizes of mesh B. Use of nets with a particular mesh size C. Ban on harvesting of some species D. Regulating the size of ships allowed into fishing grounds E. Limiting the period of fishing in the waters.

43. Which of the following is not part of the objectives of conservation of natural resources?
A. To eliminate wild animals in order to enable other plants and animals survive B. To use our resources on sustained
yield basis C. To guard against indiscriminate killings of plants and animals D. To guard against the extinction and exhaustion of natural resources E. To protect the environment.

44. During blood transfusion, agglutination may occur as a result of the reaction between
A. similar antigens and antibodies B. contrasting antigens and antibodies C. two different antigens D. two different
antibodies E. white blood cells from the two individuals.

45. Which of the following major ideas were proved by Gregor Mendel?
A. There is a tendency among organisms to increase rapidly in number, if conditions are favourable B. There is a struggle for existence among a very large number of offspring C. Nature selects organisms which will survive to produce their kind D. All species exhibit structural and functional variations E. Characteristics of an organism are controlled by genes occurring in pairs.

46. Assuming that ‘A’ is gene for normal skin and it is dominant, while ‘a’ is gene for albinism and it is recessive, what is the likely genotype of a couple which had 50% normal and 50% albinos?
A. AA, Aa B. AA, aa C. Aa, Aa D. Aa, aa. E. AA, AA.

47. Which of the following is not a constituent of DNA?
A. Purine B. Phosphate C. Cystocine D. Deoxyribose E. Uracil.

48. Which of the following best describes the homologous chromosomes? They are:
A. a product of the division of a chromosome B. two identical chromosomes from each parent C. chromosomes arranged on spindle fibres during cell division D. daughter-chromatids formed during meiotic division E. chromosomes during telophase of mitotic division.

49. The haploid number of chromosomes in man is
A. 48 B.46 C.42 D. 24 E. 23.

50. If a cross is made between a pure-breeding red flowered plant and a pure-breeding white flowered plant where R is dominant for red flower, and r is recessive for white, the most likely result of F1 generation will be
A. 75% red flowers and 25% white flowers B. All red flowers C. 75% white flowers and 25% red flowers
D. 50% red flower and 50% white flowers E. All white flowers.

51. A man with blood group A (TAP) married a woman with blood group 0 (pp). Which of the following is the probable ratio of the blood groups of the offspring?
A. 1:1 B.3:1 C.2:1:1 D.1:2:1 E.4:1.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

52. Increasing specialization of structure and function among animals of the same class or order for survival in new and different environments is called
A. Adaptive radiation B. Phylogeny C. Homology D. Analogy E. Ontogeny. .

53, When large numbers of organisms share limited space and resources the result is
A. Immigration B. Commensalism C. Symbiosis D. Extinction E. Competition.

54. The change in colour of the chameleon serves as a means of
A. attraction to the opposite sex B. repulsion of the enemy C. a camouflage from a predator D. regulation of body temperature E. production of a variety of skin pigments.

55. Species can be defined as the group of organisms that
A. resemble each other, and live in the same habitat. B. are of common origin, and are always found together C. resemble each other and can interbreed freely D. resemble each other and occupy the same niche E. are of common origin but cannot interbreed freely.

56. Which of the following is not an evidence of evolution?
A. Fossil B. Anatomy C. Embryology D. Genetics E. Behaviour.

57. Which of the following is not true about gene mutation? It
A. introduces new traits into a population B. causes changes in the DNA C. may have unnoticeable effect on the phenotype D. always affects the chromosome number E. is a source of new genes


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology.
Study the diagrams below carefully. Use them to answer Questions 58 and 59.
WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Biology

58. The plants best adapted for life in the desert are
A. I and IV only B. II and IV only C. III and IV only D. IV and V only E. I, II, III and V.

59. The rate of transpiration will be highest in
A. I B. II C. III D. IV E. V.

60. Which of the following has the most primitive respiratory system?
A. Rat B. Fish C. Toad D. Grasshopper E. Lizard


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology ANSWERS
1. A 2. A 3.C 4.D 5.B 6.A 7.E 8.E 9.D 10.A 11.A 12.D 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.A 21.D 22.C 23.A 24.D 2S.E 26.B 27.B 28.A 29.C 30.8 31.D 32.D 33.B 34.B 39.E 40.D 41.C 42.A 43.A 44.A 45.E 46.D 47.E 48.B 49.E 50.B 51.A 52.B 57.D 58.E 59.D 60.B


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology 2


1. (a)(i)Make a labelled drawing of a typical plant cell to show its essential features (ii) Give the functions of two labelled organelles (b) Describe briefly two levels of cell organization in living organisms giving an example of each type. (c) What role do the following processes play in the activities of a living cell? (i) Osmosis; (ii) Diffusion?

2. (a) State four modes of nutrition in plants (b) Outline the process involved in the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis (c) Describe briefly the modifications and the mechanisms associated with the following feeding habits: (i) filter feeding in mosquito larva; (ii) parasitic feeding in tapeworm.

3. (a) (i) Define the term population (ii) List two biotic and abiotic factors each that affect population growth. (b) What are the effects of food shortage on a population? (c) Describe two methods each for: (i) improving crop yield;
(ii) preserving and storing food. Explain the principle involved in each of the methods described for
preserving and storing food.

4. (a) What is conservation of natural resources? (b) List various natural resources that need to be conserved.
State briefly the benefits of conservation in each case. (c) List the problems often encountered in
ensuring the conservation of natural resources. (d) What are the efforts being employed in your country
to ensure conservation of natural resources?


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology – ANSWERS

WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - Biology

(ii) The nucleus: Co-ordinates the activities of the cell; houses the DNA inside chromosomes; responsible for
direct protein synthesis and enzyme formation.
– The mitochondrion: It is the centre for cell respiration. Here, glucose is broken down and stored as ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and released as required to the rest of the cell.

(b) (i) Tissue: It is a collection of cells, similar in size, shape and function. Examples of tissue in plant are the xylem, phloem etc; animal tissues are bones, cartilages, etc. (ii) Organs: -It is a Collection of cells, similar in size, shape and function. Examples of organs in plants are the root, stem, leaf, etc. Animal organs are the heart, kidney, eye, etc.
i. Osmosis: It is responsible for the transportation of materials like water from one cell absorption of mineral salts and water from the soil by the roots. The latter is possible due to the fact that the concentration of the cell sap is higher than the soil concentration, thus resulting in movement of water into the roots.
(ii) Diffusion:
Diffusion can play the following roles:
– Gaseous exchange in organisms
– Exchange of nutrients from maternal blood vessels into the foetus through placenta;
– it aids in transfer of food and oxygen from intestine into the villi and from the tissue fluids into the cells.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

2. (a) (i) Autotrophic (or holophytic) nutrition: It is a mode of nutrition in which the organisms (plants) manufacture their own foods from simple inorganic materials. They are either chemosynthetic or photosynthetic. (i.e. either from chemical reaction or reacting under sunlight).
(ii) Saprophytic nutrition: The plants depend on already-made food (i.e. dead or decayed organic matter), by first of all secreting enzymes in order to dissolve it before absorption.
(iii) Epiphytic nutrition: The plants under this form of nutrition only seek the support of their hosts,without depending on them for water and nutrient. They absorb minerals from decayed organic matters in-between the branches. Water is got through the percolated one on the branches. They manufacture their own food through photosynthesis.
(iv) Parasitic Nutrition: The plant depends on another plant (its host) for food and protection. The host on the other hand, suffers as a result of this relationship. Others are – carnivorous, symbiotic modes of nutrition etc.
(b) Outline of light and dark reactions: (i) Light reaction – light energy helps in breaking down water.into hydrogen ions, oxygen, water and electrons. This reaction can equally be called photolysis, and is attracted by the chlorophyll which has affinity for light.

4H2O Light energy    4H+2H2O +02 +4e

(ii) Dark reaction: In the dark reaction, Carbondioxide reacts with hydrogen in a complex series of small steps, each controlled by specific enzymes; producing glucose. The reaction can take place at night or in the day time (the term “dark” is misleading).

(c) (i) Filter feeding in mosquito larva: The mosquito larva feeds by trapping planktons and particles with the aid of its strainers. This it does by passing large volumes of water swept into the mouth by a pair of revolving brushes.
(ii) Parasitic feeding in tapeworm: As an endoparasite without mouth and gut -system, it possesses rostellum (hooks) and four suckers on its scolex for attachment to the walls of the intestine of its host (e.g. man). It uses the entire body surface to absorb digested food from its host.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

3. (a) (i) Population: Is defined as the number of a particular species of animal or plant living in a given habitat
(ii) The two biotic factors are competition and predators. The two abiotic factors are rainfall and temperature. Other biotic factors are pathogens, natality, mortality, dispersal, parasites, food, etc. Other abiotic factors are: topography, acidity or alkalinity of soil (i.e. edaphic factors), space, light-intensity, altitude, turbidity, moisture, etc.

(b) The effects of food shortage on a population are: (i) Malnutrition: people will be under-nourished (ii) Death: starvation might result to death (iii) Famine: little food will be made available as compared to the population (iv) Competition: the tendency is to struggle for the little available food (i.e. survival of the fittest) (v.)Diseases: People’s immune system will become too low to withstand any form of disease (VI) Cannibalism: the tendency is for some organisms to eat each other in order to survive. (c) (i) Two methods of improving crop yield can be described as below:-
– Fertilizer Application: This depends on the type of crop. In rice field, application can be done either before or after planting. In maize, effort is made to avoid contact with the plants by applying it in a circular form of about half a rule radius. Examples of fertilizers are N.P.K. (Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and Ammonium Sulphate. Manure can equally be used here by mixing it with top-soil before planting.
– Crop rotation: Here, the same piece of land is kept under cultivation every year in such a way as to restore nutrients. The land can be divided into four plots. They are now cultivated into definite order, bearing in mind that
deep-rooted crops should follow shallow-rooted crops. Among these plots, is a fallow plot planted with cover crops in order to trap nitrogen.

(c) (ii): Two methods of preserving and storing food are:
– Salting: The food in question is spread with salt e.g. meat or fish. The principle governing this is that a high osmotic pressure within the food is created, thereby killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms.
– Pasteurisation: It is partial sterilization (named after its originator, Louis Pasteur 1822-95) used to destroy many pathogenic bacteria in food without drastically altering its flavour. Milk is pasteurised by being heated for half an hour at 62°C after which it is cooled rapidly.
– Canning: preservation of foods in sealed containers usually implies heat treatment, as the principal factor is prevention of spoilage (first adopted by Spallanzani in 1765).
– Use of low temperature: This is applied to retard chemical reactions and action of food enzymes, and to slow down or stop growth and activity of microorganisms in food
– Irradiation: This is the use of ultraviolet irradiation with chilling storage. It helps preserve some foods and may permit high humidity. Ultraviolet lamps are installed in rooms for storage of meat and cheese.
– Drying: is usually done by the removal of water. This can be done using sunrays, as well as modern artificial drying using evaporator or kiln. Another form of drying is freeze-drying by means of vacuum plus heat applied at the drying shelf.
– Additives: they are those substances added to prevent deterioration or decomposition (i.e. chemical preservatives). They interfere with cell-membranes and enzymic activity of microorganisms. Examples are Vinegar, Lactic acid Propionic acid etc.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Biology

4 (a) Meaning of conservation of natural resources: It is defined as the planning and management of resources so as to secure their wise use and continuity of supply while maintaining and enhancing their qualities, values and diversities
(b) water, air, food, forest, soil and animals
(i) Water: -By irrigation (Construction of dams and reservoirs) -Controlled use of ground water – Effective control of water pollution.
Benefits: Maximisation of products like water flora (e.g. fish), water for domestic and economic use (e.g. hydroelectricity), source of protein, media for transport and recreation
(ii) Forest: Establishment of a forest reserve, – Making of laws restricting falling of economic trees, – recycling of papers and other forest-products, – conservation of soil, since it supports forest, – By reforestation and – through efficient management.
Benefits of forest conservation: – preserves timber and forest products, – checks erosion or preserves the soil, -controls desert encroachment, – preserves natural species and it encourages rainfall.
(iii) Wildlife: Through restricted- hunting, -making of laws in order to maintain the population of animals, – through game-farming, – through artificial-stocking.
Benefits of wildlife-conservation:- The animals are source of protein, – raw materials for industries are made available, – they are source of natural species; and – they boost tourism education.
(c) Problems encountered in ensuring conservation of natural resources are: (i) Insufficient land due to population explosion (ii) Economic problems (iii) Limited source of energy, hence forest destruction as firewood; (iv)Over – cropping, over – farming and over – grazing (v) Constant bush-burning; and (vi) Lack of public awareness and good management
(d) Efforts employed in the country to ensure conservation of natural resources are as follows: (i) Nigeria has agencies for conservation. Examples include Nigeria Conservation Foundation and Environmental Protection Agency (ii) Nigeria has many games and forest reserves. Examples are Yankari Game Reserve in Bauchi, Obudu Cattle Ranch in Cross River State, etc.
(iii) Reafforestation Programmes have been spearheaded by the Federal Government (gingles like “plant two trees where you cut one” have been used). (iv) Prohibition of the use of chemicals like Gammalin-20 in fishing. (v) Hunting of certain species in certain areas is prohibited in order to save some animals from going into extinction (vi) Botanical and zoological gardens are established to preserve several species of animals and plants.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English 1

Probably the Motorist saw the – 1 -lorry too – 2 – to be able to – 3 – disaster. However, he realized that if he kept to the – 4 -, a probably – 5 – head on – 6 – would be unavoidable. The only alternative was to take the lesser risk of leaving the road. With great care therefore, he turned sharply – 7 – the road and into the ditch by the – 8 – .The consequence was that, instead of being involved in a serious and probably fatal — 9 -, the – 10 – escaped with a few minor – 11 – and bruises, while the only – 12 – to his car was a bent mudguard. By – 13 – into the roadside ditch to avoid what could have been a collision with the approaching lorry, he averted a – 14 – accident at the – 15- of a few – 16 – to himself and the slight damage to his car.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions - English



A hotel is supposed to be a home away from home, but the one we – 17 – was hell away from home. Initially, we were deceived by the beautiful surroundings and by the manager’s – 18 – which was warm and inviting. After the usual – 19 – and signing of forms, we were checked in. We later discovered, to our utter dismay, that the hotel -20- many facilities and that the few available – 21 – were either faulty or – 22 -. The rooms were somehow tolerable, but there was something we could not manage – food. We complained. In fact, we ate just to – 23 – alive since whatever was on the – 24 – gave no -25–. The services there were definitely – 26 -. By the time we were due to -27 -the following day, everybody heaved a sigh of – 28 -. Maybe I heard the manager say: Did you -29-a nice stay? And thinking he heard somebody say yes, he quickly added: Please – 30 – again.

17 moved into checked dropped by checked into stood in
18 reception intention rejection conception conviction
19 feeling filing fill in feel in filling
20 lacks failed lacked lack larks
21 one ones warns warn once
22 unattractive cheap impressive standardized substandard
23 stay stand stop sit stoop
24 menu list paper dish table
25 joy sweetness problem fear digestion
26 opposing appealing appalling appetizing oppressing
27 check in check out check up check into check off
28 release reliefs relieves relief relieve
29 had have hard heard has
30 see try drop return come


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

In each of the following sentences, there is one word underlined and one gap. From the list of words lettered A to E, choose the word or group of words that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the underlined word and that will, at the same time, correctly fill the gap in the sentence.

31. .Tunde purchased various articles at the big sale near Kingsway and, surprisingly enough, he……them all before he reached home that day.
A. destroyed B. bought C. sold D. distributed B. lent.

32. In this argument, Ade was my supporter even though he is often my………….in other matters.
A. opponent B. ally C. opposite D. proposer E. opposite.

33. People who are normally……often turn to be dauntless heroes in the face of real danger
A. unsteadily B. colourless C. cowardly D. bashful E. unfriendly.

34. I encouraged my younger brother to take on Law as a profession while I……my sister from doing so.
A. financed B. warned C. dissuaded D. persuaded E. helped.

35. It is quite customary to introduce the guest speaker but to insult him.
A. illegal B. impolite C. unusual D. useless E. pointless.

36. Olu was able to kindle the fire which my father had to …..later
A. kill B. switch C. extinguish D. destroy E. ignite. After each of the following sentences, a list of possible interpretations of al/or part of the sentence is given. Choose the interpretation that you consider appropriate for each sentence.

37. Mr. John has always managed to keep his head above water.
A. keep his head above water when swimming B. like swimming C. know the techniques of swimming D. stay out of financial difficulty E. borrow a large amount of money from the bank and he is trying to pay it Lip.

38. The men eventually gained their freedom and decided later to get their own back on their oppressors.
A. strike B. have their revenge on C. abuse D. get something from E. beat up

39. He went off the rails as soon as he heard of his failure in the last examination.
A. became annoyed B. wept bitterly C. became disorganized D. became a man F. lost consciousness


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

40. She is eating her heart out for a sailor who is away at sea
A. writing to B. longing for C.quarreling with D. fuming about E. hating.

41. How do you hope to do it? . You can’t make bricks without straw
A. use a straw for making bricks B. afford not to have all the necessary materials C. seek a leader D. find bricks and straw F. erect a brick without straws.

42. Mary’s classmates agreed to send her to Coventry
A. send her to the”Sisters at the convent. B. report her to the Sisters at the convent. C. ignore her D. train her to be the leader E. send her to the penitentiary.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English  Paper 1

From the words lettered A to E below each of the following sentences, choose the word or group of words that is nearest in meaning to the underlined expression as it is used in the sentence.

43. My choice of a partner would be based on character, not looks
A. visibility B. feasibility C. appearance D. stares E. posture.

44. Ade is very winsome yet his neighbour finds it difficult to put up with him
A. stay with B. live with C. tolerate D. depend on E. rely on.

45. The girl has just come out of the fattening room and her waist is adorned with beads
A. surrounded B. decorated C. besieged D. defaced E. bedraggled

46. There are some drugs that could exacerbate a particular illness
A. heal B. ameliorate C. lengthen D. worsen E. detect

47. In accordance with the practice of his religion, Raman’s body was interred. the day he died.
A. sanctified B. preserved C. cremated D. buried E. entered.

48. What you cannot avoid you try to endure
A. cast off B. put off C. dispense with D. practice E. tolerate


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

From the words lettered A to D choose the word or group of words that best completes each of the following sentences.

49. Adamu is a very good friend on I can rely
A. who B. whose C. which D. whom

50. I ought_______the letter by now.
A. to be sent B. to have being sent C. to have sent D. to have to send

51. Toyin’s fever was so acute that she _______an injection
A. had to have B. had to had C. must have D. ought to have

52. I know of a cow has only three legs
A. whom B. which C. who D. of which

53. Ranti: This is not my key, Ayo: Then ______ is it?
A. of which B. whose C. who’s D. whom

54. There was no meat in the market_______Shade bought some fish
A. so B. unless C. since D. whereas

55. The police vehicles raced________full speed with their sirens blaring
A. on B. with C. at D. in

56. Tutu liked to read detective novels to take his mind ________his worries
A. off B. away C. out of D. from

57. I don’t know what to do with these children. They are always fighting_______
A. themselves B. myself C. one another D. each of them.

58. Wale couldn’t have said a thing like that_______
A. could he’) B. did he? C. can he? D. would he?

59. If she had known. she wouldn’t have come
A. would she? B. wasn’t it? C. wouldn’t it D. couldn’t she?

60. Salary cuts could be the_______of the worker’s pretest
A. course B. curse C. cause D. coarse


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

61. Neither John nor Mary felt happy the incident
A. for B. in C. about D. by

62. Any parent would be pleased _______ such impressive performance
A. at B. from C. with D. for

63. Stella wanted to show ______with her necklace.
A. off B. on C. over D. back

64. The woman______daughter he married. is his mother-in-law
A. whose B. which C. her D. whom

65. He acts as if he______a qeneral manager
A. is been B. were C. has been D. is being

66. The National Essay Competition came _____on the 23rd of July 1986
A. out B. in C. by D. up

67. Mrs. Nwokolo had ______her breakfast before her friend came in
A. has B. have C. had D. been had

68. If the two boys_____been bitten by the snake, they should be taken to the hospital.
A. has B. had C. have D. is

69. The man _______missed death during the collision
A. extensively B. always C. narrowly D. amply

70. I started writing at 9.am. It is now 10a.m, by 11a.m. I_____writing for 2 hours
A. will be B. am C. will have been D. have been


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

71. My_____to you, students, is to be good
A. advice B. advise C. adverse D. advance

72. The car couldn’t keep pace ______the motor cycle especially in congested areas
A. along B. with C. down D. on

73. I want everybody to learn the last ten lines of the poem _____ heart
A. with B. in C. for D. by

74. They went______talking after midnight despite the fact that they all had to get up early.
A. by B. for C. on D. with

75. There was a lot of tension in the area and it was felt that a dispute might flare ______anytime.
A. up B. down C. in D. to

76. People are always afraid to visit Mr.Ade because he is_____
A. an army B. a soldier C. an army man D.a military.

77. I want that spoon washed. I can still see ______on it
A. oilness B. greases C. some oil D. greasiness.

78. Everybody has to do_____homework
A. his B. them C. theirs D. there

79. Having worked all day it is about time we_____ back home
A. go B. goes C. went D. gone

80. At eighteen, Bose is____to take good care of her sisters.
A. enough old B. too old C. older enough D. old enough.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

81. Obi is______troublesome than I had imagined
A. much less B. the least C. more less D. very less

82. This is not________house in the street but it is certainly bigger than yours.
A. a big B. the big C. the biggest D. the bigger

83. I find it________comfortable to travel by air than by road
A. quite very much B. much more C. quite much D. very much

84 _______Sacrifice was it that people talked about it for years.
A. Much great B. How great a C. As great as D. So great a

85. The press must cater for the needs of the _______ public
A. readers B. readable C. reading D. reader

86. I hate that habit.________
A. of nagging B. by nagging C. to nag D. having nagged

87. After he had tried for sometime, he realized that all his efforts were going to be _______
A. festive B. futile C. fragrant D. fitful.

88. Mr. Dauda’s two labourers work on ______days.
A. alternative B. optional C. alternate D. current

89. If she takes_______ her mother. you can be sure of her efficiency
A. up B. on C. with D. after

90. Please. ______look my answers for me
A. over B. across C. after D. on.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

91. Ali said that going ______an operation is not a pleasant experience
A. through B. over C. in D. by

92. If pupils will abide school rules the tone of discipline will improve.
A. on B. with C. in D. by

93. ________Inform her that I called
A. When she comes back B.After she phoned C. As she was coming back D. When she arrived.

94. He knew ________
A. that they wanted B. what they wanted C. if they wanted D. at where they wanted

95. The house_______ is the most beautiful in that area
A. after Femi built B. in which Femi built C. whose Femi built D. which Femi built.

96_______ we shall go together
A. If you had come early B. If you came early C. If you come early D. Although you come early.

97. He said he forgot _______
A. what you said B. that you said C. why you said D. when you said

98. I don’t like my Maths teacher, well. he doesn’t like me ______
A. too B. also C. quite D. either

99. Eze has not heard from his sister Ada since she_______to the United Kingdom
A. has gone B. had gone C. had been going D. went

100.Ada has special love _______children. so she is going to be a teacher
A. in B. with C. of D. for


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English ANSWERS
1B 2E 3A 4D 5C 6A 7B 8 E 9D 10C 11B 12A 13A 14E 15D 16B 17D 18A 19E 20C 21B 22E 23A 24 A 25B 26C 27B 28D 29B 30E 31 C 32 A 33C 34 C 35 C 36C 37D 38 B 39A 40B 41 B 42C 43C 44C 45B 46D 47D 48 E 49D 50C 51A 52B 53B 54A 55C 56A 57C 58A 59A 60C 61 C 62C 63A 64A 65B 66D 67C 68C 69C 70C 71A 72B 73D 74C 75A 76B 77C 78 A 79C 80D 81A 82C 83B 84D 85C 86A 87B 88C 89D 90A 91A 92D 93A 94B 95D 96C 97A 98D 99D 100D


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – ENGLISH 2

1.Write a story in your school magazine beginning or ending with the sentence: I wish I had never met the man.
2.You were an eye-witness to an incident In which a crowd of angry traders beat a suspected thief to death. Write a letter to the Divisional Police Officer in your area giving an account of what happened.
3.Write an article for inclusion in one of your local newspapers on the importance of immunization against childhood diseases in your locality.
4 You have been invited to lead the motion in a school debate for or against the proposition that ‘the flew 6-3-3-4 system of education will be beneficial to the youths of Nigeria’. Write out your speech. .
5. You and a group of school mates were returning from an excursion when the bus in which you were travelling broke down in an isolated place. Write a report to the principal on the events that followed and how you got out of the situation.
6. One of your pen friends has written asking you to describe your favourite Nigerian dish to enable her to prepare it. Write back to her explaining how the dish is cooked.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English


Answer all the questions in this part.
7. Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions which follow:
At the beginning of the century also, the British administration, after the control of malaria by quinine and the resettlement of whites on high ground at Hill Station, decided to change its policy of appointing Krios to high posts and appointed Europeans instead, some of them with lower qualifications .
The religious societies also seemed to have lost faith in Krio leadership in the Church and sent out white missionaries to replace them in Sierra Leone and in Nigeria under the ageing black Bishop Crowther, the first black bishop since the Reformation. Thus, with economic power lost to the British and Lebanese merchants, civil and religious leadership’ lost to the British and with a strained relationship between them and the provincial people, the Krios have been a beleaguered  community since the 1900s. In 1926 they even lost the cherished control and mayoralty of Freetown which they had held since the 1790s regaining it only after about three decades of petitioning. But their passion for education and protestantism remained. Their teachers and clergymen at the Freetown secondary schools with degrees from Durham University with which the local Fourah Bay College had been affiliated. in.the 1870s maintained a high standard in Freetown and were in demand in neighbouring territories in the Gambia, Ghana and Nigeria, especially in northern Nigeria, where they served under Lord Lugard as both senior and junior officers. A clerk there was the main character in a novel Mr. Johnson written in that era by the late author Joyce Cary,
(a) Give one word that could replace each of the following in the passage: (i) ageing; .(ii);(iii) cherished; (iv) petitioning; (v) affiliated; (vi) era (b) In two sentences, state why It is necessary to resettle the whites on the high ground. (c) Give three areas in which the Krios found themselves discriminated against. (d) Give two reasons which show that the Krios were determined people.
(e) Write down the clauses you can see in the first sentence of the passage.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

8. Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions on it.
It was Kola’s first day at work. That morning, he woke up at exactly five O’clock. He had slept late the night before as he was getting ready for the D-day.
Securing a job was a relief to Kola and his parents. For two years, Kola had roamed the streets in search of work. He had finished his mandatory national youth service two years before after returning from America where he obtained his master’s degree in Business Administration at the State University. During these years, he has been living on his parents. Of course they were happy caring for him as having him around was what mattered. They could not bear’ the pain of him returning to America after missing him for ten years. Kola detested this too much. He felt his freedom was being curtailed by his continued dependence on his parents for survival. There was nothing he could do for the moment. He was not then a man.
Kola arrived at the office of the secretary to the Managing Director of Friendly Construction Company that morning full of smiles. He was to start as the company’s Personnel Manager. He was surprised to see the secretary already at her seat typing.She looked up from her typing with surprise. She wondered what could have kept the young man so late on the first day of his
assumption of duties. She was sure the Managing Director would not take it lying down.
She was on the verge of asking him why he was late when the door to the Director’s office opened and the director stepped into the secretary’s office. ‘Good morning Sir’, Kola greeted him.
“Morning, Mr. Kola”, replied the Director. “By my time” he continued, ‘it is now two minutes after 9 O’clock. You are one hour two minutes late. This is a bad way to begin. Kola hurriedly checked his wrist watch. He wanted to-speak, but he was stuck for words.
(a) Give one reason why Kola’s securing of a job was a relief to his parents. (b) In one sentence, explain what the writer .meant by saying Kola had been living on his parents. (c) Write a sentence to explain what you think prevented Kola from returning to America after waiting for two years without a job. (d) What in the writer’s opinion was responsible for Kola’s parents’ untiring care for him? Quote a sentence from the passage to support this (e) State in one sentence why Kola was then not a man (f) In one sentence or phrase, give the meaning of each of the following words or group of words as it is used in the passage: (i) Dday (ii) Roamed; (iii) Mandatory; (iv) Lying down; (v) Stuck for words (g) (i) What kind of grammatical structure is “with surprise” (ii) What is its function in the sentence?


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

9. Read the following passage carefully and then answer the question on it.
Katsina has for years been famous for different reasons. Certain qualities have recommended the town as an inland “port of call” for travellers. Katsina has long had an enviable record of possessing strong and resourceful farmers. Many of these have almost perfected the art of growing grains side by side with raising animals like goats, sheep, cows, horses and donkeys. Horses and donkeys are raised for their traditional role of keeping man’s company and facilitating his movement from one point to the other. The other animals have been kept as sources of milk, meat and economic strength.
Katsina as a focal town has for long prided herself on the presence of a good crop of artisans and craftsmen. Their depth of originality has formed the theme of folklore and songs. Most of these artisans engage in such activities as blacksmithing, leatherwork and woodcarving. Their products, easily provide some explanation for some of. the queues of travellers who stream into Katsina. The elegance of these artisans’ output both real and imagined -provides an extra attraction for the undecided visitors. Many would probably have remained unimpressed even with the commonly heard lines.’Those who can see admire the beauty of Katsina. Those who are blind simply inhale it’
Stories about the artisans have for ages successfully swayed many reluctant passers-by to make a stop in Katsina. Some of such calls have been brief and business-like with the callers simply focusing on satisfying their curiosity. Other callers have stopped. Mixed with the people and forgetting to move on. This class of visitors would partly explain an interesting aspect of Katsina’s population. The town has witnessed moments of drought and famine but such have hardly left their mark on the population.
Another segment of Katsina’s population has always occupied itself with some unique form of commercial participation.
Some of these men and women might never be visibly engaged in moving wares. Most of them merely engage in passing the word on the availability of this or that produce or item. Some go on to arrange contacts between sellers and their potential buyers. In certain instances these information carriers might choose the location of the meeting, the time of day or night and the individuals that would form the requirements for a particular trade contract. It is not uncommon to find a chance meeting opening up a temporary or enduring association between a young lady and a prospective suitor.
The beauty of Katsina has not been limited to its geographical and traditional eminence. The different groups of inhabitants
· have also combined to give the town a character of its own.

In six sentences. two for each group, summarise the major contributions by the following to the
eminence of Katsina: (a) farmers; (b) artisans; (c) traders.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English




Can I ever forget that birthday party of my fiance? It was during the birthday celebration of David Frank, my first love that I met a young businessman who won my heart over with enticing material gifts, catapulted me to the top of the world, promised me an uninterrupted bliss in America, made me to jilt the man who really cared for me and later dumped me in eternal misery. I met this devil incarnate of a man called Ibrahim Gado on Saturday the 4th of December 1987 in my lover’s party. Mr. Gado happened to be one of those early friends of Mr. Frank. They were in primary school and even college together. While Mr. Frank finished his college and went to university, Mr. Gado left for abroad half way in the college. He went to America where he claimed to have begun his business activities. While my fiance who I met during his national service year was still adjusting to his first post-service job, Mr. Gado was moving in and out of the country on business trips. He was bringing in a variety of articles-shoes, wears, second- hand cars, electric appliances and cameras. He has two flashy cars for his personal use. He was obviously in money. Indeed he was a dream man of most young ladies.
During the party, he saw me and made passes at me. I politely told him that the celebrant, who incidentally was his friend was my fiance and that we were planning marriage in a year’s time. He smiled and gave me his business contact address while he said we human beings are always looking for better life partners.
On my way to work the following day, he saw me and later drove me to the office and promised to come around again during break time to take me out for lunch. I felt he was only being nice. During this lunch time when two of us were together, he bought expensive wines and dishes. He went ahead to reveal all the secrets my fiance had allegedly revealed to him bout his plans for me. He said among all other things that Mr. Frank would not marry me and that he wanted only to use me and dump me later. He opened his briefcase and brought out passport and visa with my names on them. He told me that I would travel with him to America in two days time and I should not tell Frank because he would do everything to disturb me.
We got to America safely with few travelling bags. He became very fond of me and he treated me like a queen, he bought a variety of things for me. Unknown to me one of the boxes I carried contained some parcels of drugs which he sold and made  money from. After six months in America, he bought some shoes and dresses in a large cargo and directed me to deliver them to one Alhaji in Lagos. I was arrested at the airport for concealing hard drugs in my cargo. Before I could say Jack Robinson, a tribunal had jailed me ten years. While I was awaiting trial, a letter came to me via a mysterious source telling me that I was not lucky the second time around. The letter revealed that the man I travelled with was not Ibrahim Gado but Jide Abayomi and that my Mr. Frank never revealed anything to him.
For a lady who in 1987 was a little over 27 years of age to discover now she is without a husband, a child, a career, a future, an ex-convict, faces a bleak future, could be quite terrifying. I cannot indeed fail to remember the one behind these miseries: I wish I had never met the man -Ibrahim Gado or Jide Abayomi.
Ibrahim James,


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English


3, Abiku Street,
Itire Ajasa,
5th March, 1983.

The Divisional Police Officer,
Niqeria Police Force,
Badagry South Division,

Dear Sir,
I was at the main Oba Market on Monday the 4th of March 1988 to buy a few provision which I would take to the boarding school in a few days time. Halfway in my shopping, a fat woman who owned a big shop that deals on toys and other attractive gift items raised an alarm that one of the boys had stolen from her a purse containing N500 as she was wrapping an item for one of the customers. As she shouted ole! aiel (thiefl thief!) one of the boys about the age of seventeen began to run out of the market towards the busy road. Naturally and spontaneously, a large throng of traders and would-be buyers chased after the boy. followed the stampede too. I could see one boy wearing dark glasses, black shirt over a pair of dirty jeans trousers with a brown cap.
As the suspected thief crossed the canal with deep flowing muddy water, he threw an object which I could not identify from where I was into it. He would have escaped but for the many trailers that were speeding along the busy express road in quick succession. He stopped momentarily to change his direction but the crowd was near. He brought a short pistol-like gun which he aimed at the surging crowd but out of nervousness, indecision or guilty feeling, he could not shoot at anybody. From nowhere somebody knocked off the gun from his hand from behind the boy. The gun turned out to be a toy one. Many people in the irate crowd began to beat and inflict a variety of injuries on him. He was shouting and vehemently claiming that he was innocent. This  went on until some used tyres and petrol surfaced from the nearby vulcanizer’s shop. The boy who fainted before the arrival of these items was set ablaze and he died.
This was the summary trial and execution of a suspected thief before some policemen came to the scene and arrested all those they could lay their hands on. Whether this boy actually stole the purse or not was and is outside what I know and can prove. To avoid future occurrence of this type of jungle justice, I suggest you post some policemen to the busy market area,

Yours faithfully,

Abubakar Banije.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

Without much ado, a definition of immunization is enough to bring home its importance in my locality or any other place for that matter. Immunization is a scientific means of making people, particularly children resist deadly or killer-diseases. Scientists have succeeded in getting vaccines or chemical substances which can be injected into a person’s body to act as a protection against diseases.
About fifteen years ago a lot of infants who were not vaccinated or immunized died as a result of the attacks of whooping cough, measles, diphtheria, chicken pox and small pox in Agbado my locality. A good number of children who survived these diseases were those whose parents took the nice decision and pains to innoculate. Most parents who did all they could to thwart the altruistic efforts of the health officials, who pleaded with them to bring their children for inoculation lived to regret their actions. While children who were inoculated lived, their own children died in their dozen. Immunization saves all parents from losing their children prematurely to deadly but preventable diseases. So, immunization has begun an era where parents can have children and boast that barring accidents and other ways of losing lives, their young ones will grow up into useful adults. Children who are timely and properly immunized can enjoy good health in their infant years. This makes child bearing and rearing less cumbersome if not totally without tears. The convenience which inoculation enables parents to enjoy is almost incalculable. Vaccinated children grow up into healthy adults. Their growth is not impaired or stunted by measles or any of those debilitating diseases. Some of the diseases are capable of impairing the mental faculties of children. Immunization thwarts all diseases that can stunt the physical and mental growth of children.
Another significance of immunization is that it gives the society the assurance that its young ones will soon grow up to replenish the labour force which old age and retirement of the adult persons deplete. A society whose young population is seriously threatened by widespread and unchecked killer-diseases is doomed for so many reasons.
My locality of Agbado which is trying to recover from the losses of virile men and women during the civil war now knows the advantages of inoculations against all killer diseases too well.
In conclusion, immunization programme, which our state ministry of health has been emphasizing has tremendously saved us from huge sums of money being spent on herbalists, sacrifices and fruitless hunting for so-called witches that are allegedly behind all infant deaths.

Nnenna Anyaele,
Surulere, Lagos.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English

The Principal and Staff, Mr. Moderator, Fellow Students, Ladies and Gentlemen. I say good morning to all of you. I am David Frank from Ikeja Grammar School. I am here this morning to propose the motion that the new 6-3-3-4 system of education will be of immense benefit to the youths of Nigeria.
To put the horse before the cart, an introductory remark or definition of the new system is vital. It emphasizes equally and blends basic theoretical teachings with practical training in diverse useful areas like bakery, auto-mechanics, wood works, welding, computer studies and so on and so forth. Its superiority over the old system cannot be over-emphasized. The system develops the non-academic talents or skills of our young boys and girls. By the end of the first three years in
college, most learners would have been properly exposed to carpentry, bakery, welding and a host of other technical professions. This set of college graduates will not wait for paid jobs before they fend for themselves with their hands and tools.
The technical skills acquired in secondary schools can be easily further developed in higher institutions of learning like polytechnics and technical colleges because the learner technicians also have academic qualifications that will enable them to pass the matriculation examinations. Even those who go to universities to be engineers, doctors, teachers, accountants and other professionals will find very useful in their adult lives the technical skills in farming, carpentry, tailoring, welding, carving, plumbing, auto-engineering, typing and so on acquired in secondary school. An adult lawyer, for instance, may easily do some plumbing repairs in his apartment without the assistance of the full-time plumber.
One big advantage of the 6-3-3-4 system of education is that it will reduce drastically the rate of youth unemployment and the disturbing or retrogressive phenomenon of ‘area boys’ in our society. The excuse that people can’t feed themselves because they couldn’t attend tertiary institutions will not be tenable.
My fellow debaters, distinguished audience, the new system of education will reduce our dependence on foreign technicians  who troop into Nigeria to make a lot money and only repatriate it while we are made poorer. We all know how many foreign carpenters, tailors, welders, shoemakers and menders, carpenters and so on who were in Nigeria prior to the introduction of
this new educational system. This exploitation by foreigners who are not more qualified than their Nigerian counterparts was made possible because they attended technical colleges similar to our new system. The new system is beneficial to the youths because it gives technical training and skills to those that need them, and enables those who want to be professionals to do so without any setbacks or hindrance. It is a system of education that enables our youths to kill many birds with one stone.
I thank you all for your attention.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English


Remo Sec School,
PO Box2001,
Ogun State.
5th April, 1989.

The Principal,
Remo Secondary School,
Dear Sir,
In my capacity as the president of the Geographical and Historical Societies of our great college and the leader of the just concluded excursion to Abeokuta, the state capital, I wish to report to you our experience on our way from the excursion town.
Since brevity is the soul of wit, I shall save you the details of the excursion proper. But suffice it to say that it will remain memorable to all of us that participated. By the time we succeeded in visiting all the geographical and historical sites, institutions, monuments and paying courtesy calls to a few eminent personalities in the ancient town, we were already very tired, worn out, and hungry. Little did we know that this was the beginning of our problems.
About fifteen minutes journey out of Abeokuta, we had a flat tyre near one hamlet. We all came down. The driver, Mr. Ogundina and myself set about replacing the bad tyre. This took us some time because the jack was not functioning. As a result, the students were asked to raise the side of the car up for the wheel to be removed. That part of the car was wedged with a big stone. Using the same method, we were able to replace the punctured tyre with the spare one.
By 7.30 pm, the replacement was through. We boarded the car again and continued the journey. After about some minutes drive, we saw a group of four young men and two ladies in what looked like school uniforms. They waved to our vehicle to stop.
Since there was space in the vehicle, the driver stopped to pick them along. Immediately the bus stopped, they began to give orders. It dawned on us that they wer0 young armed robbers. They held different dangerous weapons; cutlasses, clubs, arrows, a piece of iron rod and a gun. First, there was silence in the bus. The driver, the other officials of the society in the bus and myself were confused.
It was Mater Tunde Balogun whom God used to rescue us. Master Balogun is the leader of the college’s man-e-war cadets and boys’ scouts’ master. During that moment of indecision and confusion, he cleared his husky voice and shouted some military – like orders: “Brave men and officers, this is the kind of moment we have been training and waiting for: I, Commander Balogun now and hereby command you all to rise, cock your guns and shoot all these enemies of peace and society” Like a magic formula, these miscreants and young hoodlums dived and disappeared into the nearby bush. Quickly, the driver continued our journey home. Everybody was visibly shaken to the bone marrow. God, through the soldierly conduct of Tunde Balogun saved us from an unspeakable calamity. These two negative incidents at the end of our excursion almost marred the success of the excursion. We thank God for his protection. And we are very grateful to the school authorities for making it possible morally and financially for my society to make the
excursion this year.
David Frank,


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English


Godwin’s College,

Isoko Local Government,
Delta State.
7th February, 1989.
Dear Dave,
I hereby acknowledge the receipt of your last letter which you wrote on the 15th of January 1989. Dave, I sincerely appreciate your advice and the little gift enclosed in the letter. It is with gladness and enthusiasm ~;,at I am going to presently satisfy your request that I should describe how we prepare one of our local recipes so that you can try your hand on it over there. This is a most friendly request because it brings you a step closer to my culture. Because Nigeria is culturally diverse and rich, we have so many dishes. However, I want to describe for you how to prepare Ukwa Awii Porridge. Ukwa is a tropical fruit which is a unique food or snack for most Easterners in Nigeria. Ukwa can be served as snacks when its seeds are roasted and served with palm
kernel or coconut.
Ukwa is very rich in carbohydrate and contains little fat, and when cooked with other ingredients, it becomes a highly nutritious and well balanced recipe. Ukwa has a peculiar tantalizing aroma. Efu seeds, a local spice and pumpkin fruit add to the taste of ukwa porridge. This porridge can be taken anytime of the day and by anybody Indeed,most elderly people prefer eating ukwa to eating rice.
We have direct access to ukwa fruits in my locality. You can buy ukwa fruits from an Ibo seller of foodstuffs in your area. To prepare Ukwa Awii Porridge for 3-4 persons, get 3 cups of breadfruits seeds, 1 pumpkin fruit, 1/2 kilo of liver or tongue, 3/4 milk tin of crayfish, 1 table spoon of salt, 2 kitchen spoon of red oil, 2 efu seeds, 2 red peppers, 1 onion, 4 pinch of thyme, water as much as possible. Wash the pumpkin fruit, cut, remove the hard back and the seeds inside the fruit. Cut into desirable shapes and sizes.
Wash tongue or liver, cut into small sizes. Add onion, salt, thyme and seasoning. Cook till they are tender. Put the ukwa seeds in pot, add plenty of water, allow to cook for 36 minutes. Check whether the seeds are tender or not, add a pinch of potash. Allow to cook for another ten minutes. Remove as much of the water as possible into a flask. Add the pumpkin fruit, ground pepper,
crayfish, efu seed, red oil and salt to the ukwa seed. Allow to cook for 10 minutes. Stir the food, taste it for salt then serve. The cooked Ukwa Awii Porridge will be served with some of the water which was earlier on removed.

Your friend,
Ngozi Okoro.


WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – English


7. (a)(i) old (ii) trouble (iii) treasured (iv) complaining (v) attached (vi) period. (b) The whites were resettled on high ground to match their new posts. Secondly, this was done to remove them from the high density mosquitoes of the low lands (c) The Krios were determined in the economic, political as well as religious spheres. (d)(i) The Krios had a great love for education and spirit of Protestantism which they still maintained. (ii) They raised the standard of education in Freetown to meet the demand of the neighbouring country. (e) At the beginning of the century also, after the control of malaria by quinine and the resettlement of the whites on high ground at Hill Station, the British Administration decided to change its policy of appointing Krios to high posts, and appointed Europeans instead, some of them with lower qualifications.

8. (a) He had been living on his parents for food, shelter and clothing. (b) Kola has been depending on his parents and this will stop henceforth. (c) One thinks that he could not afford it financially and his parents may not approve such a thing. (d) Kola’s parents were glad caring for him because they could not, again, bear the pains of his return to America after missing him for ten years. (e) He was then not a man because his dependence on his parents meant that his freedom as a man was being curtailed. (f)(i) Memorable day (ii) Wandered about (iii) Compulsory (iv) Kindly (v) Speechless (g)(i) Adverbial phrase (ii) Modifies “looked”.

Note: The candidates are not required to provide many synonyms to words that appear in question like (f) above. The above alternatives are given to enable the would be candidates to know that a word can have correct possible answers or synonyms. A candidate should provide only one synonymous word or phrase.

9. (a)(i) The farmers cultivated food crops (ii) They reared animals for food, trade and transport (b)(i) Artisans engaged in blacksmithing, leather works and wood carving that attract many tourists and traders. (ii). The graceful artistic output draws extra attention for the undecided visitors (c)(i) The traders advertised the available products. (ii). The traders go on looking for buyers, facilitating contact for both buyers and sellers and probably of personal interest.



WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Mathematics 1

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WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – PHYSICS 2

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WASSCE 1988 Past Questions – Chemistry

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